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Tattvas I.

Jiva (soul)
Krsna and Radha, Goloka
Sri Radha's name in the SB


- definition: (BG 8.3) "activity pertaining to the development of mat. bodies"
karmabhih praninam loke sarva cesta pravartakah: Karma is the cause of all activities among the living beings of this world. (Vayu Purana 21.42)

- categories: aprarabdham-phalam-papam kutam-bijam-phalonmukham (Padma Purana, quoted in BG 9.2p.)

- child's: from 14 years (Mahabharata Adi Parva 108, Madhvacarya quoted in SB 11.21.16 p.)

- conditional (by sakti, buddhi, samrddhi, desa, avastha): SB 11.21.11

- devotee's: changed by Krsna - "Krsna-karma": (SB 2.7.42, 3.28.38, 10.87.40, CC Antya 6.193p., Brhad-bhagavatamrta 2.4.85-86) Vedanta-sutra 4.1.15: only anarabdha-karma burned by vidya. According to Baladeva Vidyabhusana's commentary to Vedanta-sutra 3.4.16, at diksa the HK mahamantra burns all karma (BG 4.37 - sarva karmani) but the gross body - being the prarabdha karma - Krsna preserves for preaching. Spiritual body is attained immediately after initiation (740817SB.VRN)

- devotees vs. nondevotees: (SB 8.9.28) "The place, the time, the cause, the purpose, the activity and the ambition were all the same for both the demigods and the demons, but the demigods achieved one result and the demons another. Because the demigods are always under the shelter of the dust of the Lord's lotus feet, they could very easily drink the nectar and get its result. The demons, however, not having sought shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord, were unable to achieve the result they desired."

- disciple's taken by guru: (Skanda Purana, quoted in Hari-bhakti-vilasa 1.77)

rAjnI camAtyajA doSaH
patnI-pApam sva-bhartari
tathA ziSyArjitam pApam
guruH prApnoti nizcitam

Just as a king accepts the faults of his minister and a husband the sins of his wife, similarly a spiritual master receives the sins of his disciples.

mantri doSaz ca rAjAnaM
jAyA doSaH patiM yathA
tathA prApnoty asandehaH
ziSya pApaM guroH priye

Just as the king has to bear the faults of his ministers or a husband has to bear the faults of his wife, so the spiritual master has to bear the sins of a disciple. There is no doubt of it, my dear [Devi]. (Kularnava tantra 11.109, Ram Kumar Rai 1999, p. 188)

sarveSAm eva dAnAnAM jJAna dAnaM viziSyate
na saMkhyA phala siddhInAM jJAnasya ca visarpaNAt
yathaiva pAtra saMpadbhir jJAna dAnaM viziSyate
evaM pAtrasya doSeNa dAtur bhavati kilbiSam
tasmAt pAtraM parIkSyaiva dAtavyaM jJAnam uttamam
azrameNa mahat puNyaM jJAna dAnAd yad icchati

Of all kinds of gifts, the imparting of sacred knowledge excels in merit. The good results of the spread of knowledge are innumerable. Parama samhita 31.55
As by the suitability of a pupil the gift of knowledge becomes meritorious, so the faults in the recipient of knowledge go to him that gives it. 31.56
Therefore the best of all knowledge should be imparted only after careful examination of the recipient, if one wishes to gain the great merit of the imparting of knowledge without much trouble. 57 (Parama samhita 31.55-57)

- Earth, created only on: (Visnu Purana 2.3.2)

karmabhumir iyam svargam apavargam ca gacchatam

- vs. free will (svecchA, svacchanda): Lord is so great that He knows our future decisions and incorporates them into His plan. So when we act sinfully we have to get reactions because we misused our free will - not that He forced us.

- hereditary: Manu 4.173

- in Kali-yuga not for sins in mind: SB 1.18.7

- references: BG 2.51-52, 4.11-24, 6.41-47, 8.3, 14.18; SB 1.13.46, 4.11.20, 4.24.43, 5.5.5, 5.11.6, 6.1.4,45, 10.13.53, 10.14.8... without end

- transfer: according to Garuda Purana 1.115.6 any personal contact involves transfer of karma to some degree. Therefore the rules of social contact are very prominent in the Vedic culture. "Sin (karma) spreads from a man to man slowly by conversation, mutual touch, frequent association, taking food together, sitting together, lying together and traveling together."

- transfer through food:

Jayapataka Swami:

Srila Prabhupada taught us in India that different types of foodstuff transferred different degrees of karma from the donor to the consumer. This is for food given in charity by someone to a devotee.

The list from least dangerous to most dangerous: water, whole uncut fruit, cut fruit, fried food (in ghee presumably, pakka), boiled grains like rice (katcha).

If you buy food then you don't get the seller's karma, only the karma of whatever the food might contain. You do get the cook's vibration and mentality if it is cooked food.

Harikesa Swami:

Non-cooked foods can be accepted from anyone at any time, if they are pure (not animal product and so on.)

If uninitiated devotee were to cook something and offer it properly it could be accepted by initiated devotees if he were to invite them to his house. After all, we used to go to people's houses in India with Srila Prabhupada and accept their offerings. However, this is not the best thing for initiated devotees. The best thing is to only accept foods cooked in the temple by initiated devotees and offered to the Deities. But if one is traveling and preaching and does a program in someone's house then it is natural to accept something from them if they are on the same standard as a regular devotee, namely chanting and following the four regulative principles.

I do remember from India getting extremely sick from eating outside and Prabhupada confirmed that it came from eating and therefore I have warned all my disciples that it is not good to eat outside, even in India, although for preaching we might make exceptions, but still there will be reactions. People like to feed sadhus because the sadhus come to their house and eat their sins. Prabhupada was merciful and didn't mind eating other's sins because he wanted to save them, but other devotees, who are not so powerful, will get sick by such eating.

- "vicarious atonement": (Vedanta-sutra 4.1.17, Manu 6.79) in case of special nirapeksas, their good/bad karma is divided to their friends/enemies and they leave the body immediately after attaining Vidya

Jiva (soul)

- floats in prana in the heart cavity (Katha Up. 1.3.1); prana is one but acts in different ways, movement of prana leads to identification with the body (SB 4.29.71), lower pranas control the senses and are under the control of main prana controlled by the Supersoul (Paramatma) according to desire and karma of the soul. Consciousness is spread all over the body through blood (also moving due to prana). Soul controls the pranas in a sense that he enjoys their movements. Demigods control the pranas in a sense that they define the activities of the senses (Surya is lord of sight because the sun defines what is visible to the eyes.) Real master of the eye is Paramatma.

- model of interaction with gross and subtle bodies and Paramatma: Schools of Dvaita Vedanta in agreement with Vedas (Rig Veda 1.164.20-22) and Upanishads (Mundaka Upanishad 3.1.1, Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3.20, 4.6-7) teach that jiva/atma and Paramatma (Supersoul) are situated in the body like two birds on a tree. Their mutual interaction can be explained by an example of a computer:
Physical body can be compared to hardware, subtle/astral body to software false ego (ahankara) to interface, prana to electricity, soul (jiva/atma) to user and Paramatma to system operator controlling a network of many computers, or bodies (Bhagavad gita 13.3). Functionality of this system in interaction with the material world is defined by the condition of bodies (age, health, abilities, etc.). When one gross body is completely out of use, jiva has to leave it and Paramatma assigns her another one according to her needs, desires and merits (reincarnation).

- compared to a seed planted into the womb of internal energy, with the help of sravanam kirtanam it grows and develops spiritual body and mind

- 5 kosas (sheaths, coverings, parts of subtle body) (Taittiriya Upanisad 2.1-5, BG 13.5p., SB 6.15.12-15p.):

annamaya - mind oriented on food
pranamaya - on bodily effort
manomaya - on mental activities
vijnanamaya - on intellectual discrimination
anandamaya - impersonal spiritual happiness (vimukta-manina)

Suhotra Prabhu:

Causal body (karana-deha) is a subtle body (linga-sarira) purified by mystic yoga (one can reach the edge of Causal ocean/Karana-jala in it). Preliminary anandamaya is perceived by Brahma and after being transcended, real anandamaya (KC) develops in svarupa, or siddha-deha (spiritual body and mind.) Gross body (sthula-sarira) is nourished by annnamaya consciousness (anna - grains) which predominates in Bhur-loka. Living entities in pranamaya, manomaya and vijnanamaya are civilized humans on Bhur-loka, Bhuvar-loka (mainly water and liquid elements; e.g. moon - cooling and nectar producing effects), Svarga-, Mahar-loka (mainly fiery elements). On Jana-, Tapo-loka (airy elements) and Satya-loka (ethereal elements) live great mystics with asta-siddhi who transcended linga-sarira and have karana-deha. In this body does not exist gross and subtle enjoyment but still there is false ego - they are attached to their positions in the universe. Between material and spiritual mind is no connection (not that lustful mind means madhurya rasa svarupa). While material consciousness predominates, spiritual mind sleeps, everything is like a dream (SB 4.29.2b).

- bhakti inherent to jiva though awakened by guru:

CC Madhya 19.151:

brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva
guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija

brahmanda bhramite - wandering in this universe; kona - some; bhagyavan - most fortunate; jiva - living being; guru - of the spiritual master; krsna - of Krsna; prasade - by the mercy; paya - gets; bhakti-lata - of the creeper of devotional service; bija - the seed.

According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. By the mercy of both Krsna and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.

CC Madhya 20.117:

krsna bhuli' sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha
ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha

krsna bhuli' - forgetting Krsna; sei jiva - that living entity; anadi - from time immemorial; bahir-mukha - attracted by the external feature; ataeva - therefore; maya - illusory energy; tare - to him; deya - gives; samsara-duhkha - miseries of material existence.

Forgetting Krsna, the living entity has been attracted by the external feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy (maya) gives him all kinds of misery in his material existence.

CC Madhya 22.107:

nitya-siddha krsna-prema 'sadhya' kabhu naya
sravanadi-suddha-citte karaye udaya

nitya-siddha - eternally established; krsna-prema - love of Krsna; sadhya - to be gained; kabhu - at any time; naya - not; sravana-adi - by hearing, etc.; suddha - purified; citte - in the heart; karaye udaya - awakens.

Pure love for Krsna is eternally established in the hearts of the living entities. It is not something to be gained from another source. When the heart is purified by hearing and chanting, this love naturally awakens.

(CC Antya 3.78-86:) Caitanya M. liberated all living entities and enabled the manifestation of the unmanifested (suksma) living entities (present inhabitants of this universe) who were merged in material elements, inactive, fully unconscious and out of samsara. Interplanetary space is constituted mainly of ether (akasa) and is full of suksma-jivas.

tumi mor cira sAthI _bhuliyA_ mAyAr lAthi
khAiyAchi janma-janmAntare
Aji punaH e sujoga jadi hoy jogAyoga
tabe pAri tuhe milibAre

O Lord Krsna, You are my eternal companion. _Forgetting You_, I have suffered the kicks of maya birth after birth. If today the chance to meet You occurs again, then I will surely be able to rejoin You. (Srila Prabhupada, Prayer to the lotus feet of Krsna)

- the process of falldown:

Jiva leaves the spiritual world after losing interest in the devotional service caused by aparadhas, as directly stated by the Lord (Sanskrit and English text in context):

sAyujyaM pratipannAs te tIvra bhaktAs tapasvinaH
kiMkarA mamate nityA bhavanti nirupadravAH

Then, those having gained divine association and being rigorously devoted to Me and austere in life, become My servants, and remain ever in that condition without any trouble. (Parama samhita 30.94)

teSAM bhakty aparAdhena saMsAraH sambhavet punaH
anyathA sthitir evaiSAM mat prasAdena zAzvatI

To them, life in the samsara will come again by aparadhas in their devotional life. Otherwise this position is eternal here through My grace. (Parama samhita 30.95)

nivrttAs tu viziSyante sarvebhyaH puruSottamAH
saMsAra gocarAtItA nirvizeSAH sadA mama

Those, who are liberated from worldly life (nivRttAH or muktAH) however are the best of men, superior to those in samsara and always non-different from Me. (Parama samhita 30.96)

tat teSAM sambhavo bhUyaH pramAdo vAsti kazcana
vedAntair idam evoktaM vaiSNavaM paramaM padam

apavargaz ca muktiz ca nirvANaM caiva dehinAm
etad eva parA siddhir gatInAM paramA gatiH

To them there is no birth again, nor any illusion. What is called paramam padam of Visnu in the Vedanta is this alone; as also apavarga, mukti and nirvana to embodied beings. This alone is the ultimate attainable perfection, the ultimate goal of all goals. (Parama samhita 30.97-98)

In Srila Prabhupada's books is Parama samhita mentioned twice in CC Adi 5.41, as quoted in Sri Bhasya of Ramanujacarya. In the Sandarbhas or HBV it's not quoted.

Sri Mahaprabhu Himself states, posing as a conditioned soul: ayi nanda-tanuja kiGkaraM patitaM mAM viSame bhavAmbudhau - 'O My Lord, O Krsna, son of Maharaja Nanda, I am Your eternal servant, but I have fallen into this horrible ocean of nescience...' (Siksastaka 5)

The same is said in one of the main Mahayana Buddhist texts:
"The ego [primarily] pure has been defiled on account of the external passions since the beginningless past, (359) and what has been added from outside is like a [soiled] garment to be washed off. As when a garment is cleansed of its dirt, or when gold is removed from its impurities, they are not destroyed but remain as they are; so is the ego freed from its defilements." (Lankavatara-sutra, Sagathakam 755-756, translation D. T. Suzuki, London 1932) cf BG 2.21-22

SP books on falldown:

BG 7.27p. - "deluded into separation and becomes controlled by illusory energy"
SB 4.29.26 - "when he forgets his supreme master, the Personality of Godhead, he gives himself up unto the modes of material nature"
SB 10.87.38 - "material nature attracts the jiva" who "loses all his spiritual qualities" (apeta bhagaH)
SB 11.2.37 - words IzAd apetasya specify that the jiva left the company of Isa, the Lord (Monier Monier-Williams: apeta - mfn. escaped, departed, gone, having retired from, free from (abl. or in comp.) and thus became overwhelmed by the fear of duality.
SB 11.5.18 - vAsudeva-parAk-mukhAH - those who have turned away from Lord VAsudeva.

On his way to material world the soul is given three chances by Krsna (in the form of 3 Visnus) to stay in the spiritual world by taking shelter of any of Them. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati says in the purport to Brahma-samhita 5.16 that when the souls emanate from Mahavisnu they can surrender to Him and live in Vaikuntha: "The innumerable jivas as spiritual particles emanating from the oversoul in the form of pencils of rays of effulgence, have no relation with the mundane world when they come to know themselves to be the eternal servants of the Supreme Lord. They are then incorporated into the realm of Vaikuntha. But when they desire to lord it over Maya, forgetting their real identity, the egotistic principle Sambhu entering into their entities makes them identify themselves as separated enjoyers of mundane entities."
According to SB 3.20.16 when they collectively appear in Hiranyagarbha (Garbhodakasayi Visnu) they can surrender to Him and live in Brahma-loka: "From the navel of the Personality of Godhead Garbhodakasayi Visnu sprouted a lotus flower effulgent like a thousand blazing suns. This lotus flower is the reservoir of all conditioned souls, and the first living entity who came out of the lotus flower was the omnipotent Brahma. Purport: It appears from this verse that the conditioned souls who rested within the body of the Personality of Godhead after the dissolution of the last creation came out in the sum total form of the lotus. This is called hiranyagarbha."
According to SB 4.21.36 when the soul appears in human form by the mercy of Paramatma (Ksirodakasayi Visnu) he gets the chance to receive knowledge from guru, to perform devotional service and to return to Godhead. If he does not take advantage of it he falls into sense gratification and samsara: "There is specific mention of the word gurum, which indicates the Supreme Personality as caitya-guru. The Supreme Godhead in His Paramatma feature is present in everyone's heart, and He is always trying to induce the individual soul to surrender unto Him and to engage in devotional service; therefore He is the original spiritual master."
SB 4.29.4 p.: "Originally the living entity is a spiritual being, but when he actually desires to enjoy this material world, he comes down. From this verse we can understand that the living entity first accepts a body that is human in form [SB 9.24.58 p. - Brahma's], but gradually, due to his degraded activities, he falls into lower forms of life - into the animal, plant and aquatic forms. By the gradual process of evolution, the living entity again attains the body of a human being and is given another chance to get out of the process of transmigration. If he again misses his chance in the human form to understand his position, he is again placed in the cycle of birth and death in various types of bodies."
SB 11.16.42: Therefore, control your speaking, subdue the mind, conquer the life air, regulate the senses and through purified intelligence bring your rational faculties under control. In this way you will never again fall onto the path of material existence. ( bhUyaH kalpase 'dhvane).

The reason _why_ we, the souls, left Lord's blissful association is aparadha and our small independence. We can stay with the Lord or not. This is our eternal nature of marginal potency (tatastha- sakti). When we leave the spiritual world, we are captured by Maya and when we realize our fault we try to get back. Lord would like us to stay with Him but He doesn't bar us from leaving Him. Out of His mercy, however, He is all the time with us as the Supersoul and helps us in many ways. And when we come back to our original position, He is more happy than us. The odyssey of the soul is illustrated in Brhad-bhagavatamrta 2 by Sanatana Gosvami and the Biblical parable of the prodigal son (Luke 15:11 onward). [This same example is used by SP in Room Conversation with Mr. Lallier (740612R2.PAR): Sometimes it happens the father maintains the children, but the same child sometimes gives up the protection of the father. "Why shall I live under the guidance of...? I shall become independent." There are many instances in your western countries. He's happy being under the protection of the parents, but he rebels. He goes away. So that he can do. But if the father is very big, very rich, and the son leaves home and goes away to live independently, he suffers so much inconveniences and that is his choice.]

Specific arguments against the falldown from one GM devotee answered

1. "Back to Godhead" was allegedly just a figure of speech: "In the very first edition, the first volume of this journal SP said: I've taken this name Back to Godhead, this phrase, from a speech that was given by the Archbishop of Canterbury."

answer: SP in that article clarly 4x speaks about moving back home, to Godhead: to carry all back to home
they will go back to Godhead
to cure the disease of Nescience and go "BACK TO GODHEAD."
to go back to Godhead.

2. "All the philosophers in the Vaisnava culture, they established that the conditioning of the soul in this world has no beginning and this is even stated in BG 13.20... VCT points out 'the karma of the living entity has no beginning'".

answer: "in this world" - exactly! "Anadi" refers just to our stay in this world. It says nothing about our previous existence. The term "anadi" is used because it's not possible to find out by material means when were material universes for the first time manifested from Mahavisnu.
From the transcendent point of view Mahavisnu isn't anadi: according to Jnanamrtasara/Narada Pancaratra 1.12.61, 2.6.25, or Radha pranama (mahAviSNos prasU) He is the son of Sri Radha; and "anadi prakriti and purusa (jiva)" (from BG 13:20) as Krisna's expansions must work similarly but because it's a transcendent abode outside material time, it's referred to as "anadi".

3. "Our mind tends to think 'When I came to this world, what was my first life here?' Some people speculate 'Well, the first life would be Brahma, and then we gradually came down'. This is not based anywhere in sastra. Even the discussion what was the first life doesn't come."

answer: "Some people" includes SP.

"Originally the living entity is a spiritual being, but when he actually desires to enjoy this material world, he comes down. From this verse we can understand that _the living entity first accepts a body that is human in form_, but gradually, due to his degraded activities, he falls into lower forms of life - into the animal, plant and aquatic forms. By the gradual process of evolution, the living entity again attains the body of a human being and is given another chance to get out of the process of transmigration. If he again misses his chance in the human form to understand his position, he is again placed in the cycle of birth and death in various types of bodies." (SB 4.29.4,p.)

"Both the Lord and the living entity, being qualitatively spirit soul, have the tendency for peaceful enjoyment, but when the part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead unfortunately wants to enjoy independently, without Krsna, he is put into the material world, where he begins his life as Brahma and is gradually degraded to the status of an ant or a worm in stool." (SB 9.24.58 p.)

Yogesvara: If one has fallen so far that he has taken the body of a fly or a mosquito, can he still return to Krsna?
Prabhupada: Yes. As he degraded from the body of Brahma to fly, similarly, he can also ascend from the body of a fly to the body of Brahma. (Room Conversation with Mr. Lallier 740612R2.PAR)

an alternative explanation of 'Brahma':

Q. What does it mean when the scripture says that the living being (jiva) takes his first birth in the material world as Brahma?

A. It is not that every jiva is born first as a Brahma and after a lifetime as Brahma falls into lower forms of life. The correct understanding is that Brahma represents what is referred to as samasti-jiva, the collective of jiva souls. This is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam SB 3.20.16, sarva-jivanikayauko yatra svayam abhut svarat. It is also explained in SB 11.3.12, where the samasti-jiva is referred to as the vairaja-purusa. According to Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, the word vairajah in this verse indicates the totality of the individual conditioned souls who originally take birth from Brahma and are amalgamated back into him at the time of annihilation. Thus Brahma represents the collective of jivas and in this sense the jiva is born first as Brahma, who is also the first-born jiva. (Q & A by Swami B. V. Tripurari - Jiva Tattva, Date: Sunday, November 30, 2003 Vol. V, No. 26)

4. "Mahavisnu situates Himself in tatastha sakti and becomes Paramatma and then from the Paramatma all the jivas have come."

answer: It's not clear what is meant by "Mahavisnu situates Himself in tatastha sakti". Karanodaka isn't tatastha sakti, jivas are tatastha sakti. From Paramatma manifest baddha jivas.

5. "Anyone can't fall from God's kingdom."

answer: This is directly refuted by 'patanam slokas' in jiva_origin_discussion One of reasons for falldown is aparadha (see Parama samhita quotes above).

Jiva and his falldown
On aparadhas and remedies
Question about offenseless chanting
Caitanya Bhagavata 3.3.442-464 on removing Vaisnava aparadha (cz, en)

- four imperfections: (SB 10.13.15p.) karanapatava (imperfect senses), pramada (tendency to be illusioned), bhrama (committing mistakes), vipralipsa (tendency to cheat).

- size of (a human) thumb: (Mahabharata, Satyavati akhyana) Yama forcibly dragged the thumb-like soul from the body of Satyavan (aNguSThamAtram puruSam niScakaRSa balA yamaH - Ta. 10.38.1 (Taittiriya Aranyaka?)) This seems to refer to jiva covered by a subtle body.

- spiritual qualities (8) sought by: (Vedanta-sutra 1.3.18)

"The term dahara does not refer to the jiva, because the dahara is the source of eight spiritual qualities sought after by the jiva (apahata-papa - freedom from sins, vijara - freedom from old age, vimrtyu - freedom from death, visoka - freedom from material distress and happiness, vijighatsa - freedom from hunger, apipata - freedom from material desire, satya-kama - spiritual desire, satya-sankalpa - self-fulfillment)."

- unlimited number: SB 3.6.8, 11.31.13 (asesa), 7.7.38 (asesa dehinam), Paramatma-sandarbha 47.1

- some are always in the material world (it's never empty): "Srila Jiva Gosvami poses the following question: Since devotional service easily awards one liberation, isn't it possible that everyone will be liberated and the world will no longer exist? The great acarya answers that there is no such danger, since it is very difficult for envious, duplicitous, sensuous persons to faithfully serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and there is no shortage of such people in the world." (SB 10.60.54 p.)

- those in Krsna-lila are expanded in unlimited material universes:
"To answer your second question, you should know that Arjuna and Kunti Devi are not in Krishna Loka. They are eternally associated with Krishna only in the material world. Just like Krishna is always in the spiritual world, so similarly He is always in the material world and His Pastimes are going on there also. In the material world, Krishna also has eternal associates, such as Arjuna and Kunti Devi. There is a difference between the body and soul of Arjuna and Kunti Devi. But although Arjuna is with Krishna in innumerable different material universes at one time, still there is only one spirit soul who is Arjuna. This spirit soul expands into many different bodies and thus you can understand that there are also incarnations of devotees as well as incarnations of Krishna. This is the power of the spirit soul, that it is unlimited. Such conception cannot be understood while one is still in the conditioned state." (SPL to Saradia, Los Angeles, 12 December 1968)

"Tulasi plants are liberated souls who want to serve Krsna in that way. Anyone who even desires to serve Krsna is liberated, what to speak of one who is actually engaged in devotional service; expansion means remains in Goloka Vrndavana and at the same time expands all over the universe. Krsna can expand, so His devotee can also expand." (SPL to Ekayani, 31st August, 1971)

Jiva - soul (definition, analysis, comparison of Western and Vedic concept; BG and Vs quotes in commentaries of four Vaisnava sampradayas)
Jiva origin discussion
Jiva - Atma page
Ekajivavada refutation
Soul Re-emerges in the Laboratory (research by Wilder Penfield etc.)
Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI)


- how to distinguish between S. and mind: Supersoul speaks first and silently, the mind as second but loudly. It speaks in harmony with guru/sastra/sadhu.

- speaks only to the pure devotees (SB 4.29.50p.): Astaratha Das: two-way communication with pure devotees, intuition also in case of common people (who don't know its source)

- directs individual soul (fulfills his desires by directing his body) (SB 4.24.64p., 4.29.60p.)

- reminds him how to act according to his advancement (SB 7.14.38)

- "The Supersoul coming out of the body (of the jiva) enters the impersonal brahmajyoti." (BG 15.18p. - quote from Chandogya Upanisad 8.12.3; acaryas interpret "uttama purusa" also as a mukta jiva, e.g. in commentaries to Vs 4.4.1-3)

- size: "Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a club respectively." (SB 2.2.8)

Krsna and Radha, Goloka

Krsna's supreme ontological position is elaborately defined in Sad-sandarbhas of Sri Jiva Gosvami, esp. Krsna-sandarbha.

Sruti references:

- superior to devas:

tad visnoh paramam padam sada pasyanti surayah
diviva caksur atatam visnor yat paramam padam

The wise continuously see the highest abode of Visnu. (Rg Veda 1.22.20)

tamid garbham prathamam
dadhra apo yatra devahsamagachanta
visve ajasya nabhavad hy ekam arpitam
yasmin visvani bhuvanani tasthuh

The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the gods were gathered all together. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel, that One wherein abide all things existing. (Rigveda 10.82.6)

- by name:

apasyam gopam anipadyamana ma ca para ca pathibhis carantam
sa sadhricih sa visucir vasana avatirvati bhuvanesv antah

I saw a cowherd. He never falls from his position; sometimes he is near, and sometimes far, wandering on various paths. He is a friend, decorated with a variety of clothes. He comes again and again to the material world. (Rg Veda 1.164.31)

The name "Krsna" is also mentioned in Rg Veda 1.116.23, 8.74.3,4, etc. See Visnu as Supreme in Rig Veda.

yasmat param naparam asti kincid
yasman naniyo na jyayo'sti kascit
vrksa iva stabho divi tisthaty ekas
tenedam purnam purusena sarvam

There is no one greater than Him. There is no one smaller or larger than Him. By this person everything becomes complete. He is situated firmly like a tree, surrounded by effulgence. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.9)

esa atma 'pahata-papa vijaro vimrtyu visoko
vijaghatso'pipasah satya-kamah satya-sankalpah

That soul is without sin, without old age, without death, without lamentation, without hunger, without thirst, fully truthful and whose wish is always fulfilled. (Chandogya Upanisad 8.1.5)

ayam atma sarvesam bhutanam madhu ayam atma sarvesam
bhutanam adhipatih sarvesam bhutanam raja

This soul is the honey for all living entities. He is the Lord of all living entities, the king of all living entities. (Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 2.5.14-15)

sa yadi sakhiloka kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya sakhayah
samuttisthanti tena sakhilokena sampanno mahiyate

If He desires friendship, by his wish, friends appear and with them He can obtain satisfaction. (Chandogya Upanisad 8.2.5)

na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam
nema vidyuto bhanti kuto'yam agnih
tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvas
tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati

Neither sun, moon, stars, lightning, what to speak of fire, can reveal the Supreme. Rather all the luminary objects, in accordance with the Lord, receive their own existence. Everything rests on the existence of the Lord. (Katha Upanisad. 2.2.15)

vedaham etam purusam mahantam
aditya varnam tamasah parastat
tam eva viditvatimrtyum eti
nanya-pantha vidyate'yanaya
sarvatah pani padam tat sarvato'ksi siro mukham
sarvatah srutimatloke sarvam avrty atitisthati

I know that great person as transcendental to the material world, self illuminating like the sun. The jiva, knowing Him, surpasses death. There is no other path for crossing death. His hands and feet are spread everywhere. His eyes, head, mouth and ears are everywhere. He exists spreading himself in all things. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.8.16)

na sandrse tisthati rupam asya
na caksusa pasyati kascanainam
hrda hrdi stham manasa ya enam
evam vidur amrtas te bhavanti

His form is beyond material sense perception. No one can see Him with material eyes. Those who, by meditation, know him who is situated in the heart, attain liberation. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.20)

tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram
tam daivatanam paramam ca daivatam
patim patinam paramam parastad
vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam

You are the Lord of all other controllers such as Brahma and Siva. You are the Lord of all the devatas such as Indra. You are the Lord of all the prajapatis. You are superior to the supreme. We know you as the ultimate object of all prayers and eulogies; the Supreme Personality who is keen on performing wonderful pastimes. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.7)

Purana references are too many to list. Some examples:
Adi (not Brahma Purana), SB, Bhavisya (Uttara parva - aka Bhavisyottara parva), Brahma (ch. 180-212), Brahma-vaivarta, Brhad-dharma (3rd khanda, end), Devi-bhagavata (skandha 5), Mahabhagavata (ch. 49), Kurma 1.24-25, Malla, Narada (Brhan-naradiya), Padma (Patala khanda 2.69-99), Siva (Bhauma samhita - aka Auma/Uma samhita, Vayaviya samhita, part 2), Brhad-vamana, Visnu (ch. 5)

kUrmo dharmo 'ham eva ca
naraz ca kArttikeyaz ca
zrI-kRSNAMza vayaM nava

Sri NarayaNa Rsi said: Brahma, Siva, Sesa, Ganesa, Kurma, Yamaraja, Nara, Karttikeya, and I are nine amsas of Lord Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.9.10)

nArAyanA mad-aMzas ca (Sri Krsna speaks in Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.35.73)

Tantra references:

naiva kRSNAt paro devI naiva kRSNAt paraH pumAn
naiva kRSNAt paro jJAnI na yogI ca tataH paraH

naiva kRSNAt paroH siddhas tat-paro 'pi nahIzvaraH
na tat-paraz ca janako vizveSAM paripAlakaH

There is no other devi (female) or male person superior to Krsna. There is no other jnani or yogi superior to Him.
There is no other siddha (perfected being) or god superior to Him; there is no other father and protector superior to Him. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.8-9)

yathA reNur asaMkhyaz ca tathA vizvAni nArada
eteSAm Izvaraz caiko rAdhezaH prakRteH paraH

O Narada! As the dust molecules are infinite, so the universes are infinite. And there is one God and the only God who is the Lord of all these universes, who is the Lord of Radhika, and is beyond prakrti. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.16)

Dharma sastra references: Visnu smriti 98.96

- analogy: Krsna - king, sakti-tattvas - queens, jiva-tattvas - their children, maya - children's teacher/minder (empowered to punish them)

- appearance of Krsna and Balarama - the mystery

Thereafter, exactly when Vasudeva, being inspired by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was about to take the newborn child from the delivery room, Yogamaya, the Lord's spiritual energy, took birth as the daughter of the wife of Maharaja Nanda.

PURPORT Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura discusses that Krsna appeared simultaneously as the son of Devaki and as the son of Yasoda, along with the spiritual energy Yogamaya. As the son of Devaki, He first appeared as Visnu, and because Vasudeva was not in the position of pure affection for Krsna, Vasudeva worshiped his son as Lord Visnu. Yasoda, however, pleased her son Krsna without understanding His Godhood. This is the difference between Krsna as the son of Yasoda and as the son of Devaki. This is explained by Vi?van€tha Cakravart… on the authority of Hari-vamsa. (SB 10.3.47)

There are two separate "womb entrances", one by expansions, another by original Lords. Balarama simultaneously appeared both in the womb of Devaki as Sankarsana Balarama and in the womb of Rohini in Vrindavana (being impregnated by Vasudeva when she was visiting him in Mathura). Yogamaya arranged that the two Balaramas became one in the womb od Rohini in Vrindavana. Srila Jiva Gosvami elaborates:

An intricate sequence of events is hinted by the use of the phrase "tau capi (the two of them, also,)" in this passage from the Mahabharata. First, Vasudeva and Sankarsana (purusa-incarnations) entered the wombs of Devaki and Rohini. Then, Krsna and Balarama (the original forms of Vasudeva and Sankarsana) entered the wombs of Devaki and Rohini "also". Then, within the womb of Devaki, Vasudeva and Krsna joined to become a single Krsna and within Rohini's womb Sankarsana and Balarama joined to become a single Balarama. In this way the word "api" (also) refers to the joining of Krsna-Vasudeva and Balarama-Sankarsana. In other words, Lord Krsna sent His immediate visnu-tattva expansions into the material world before He personally came and when he personally came, He and His visnu-tattva forms became united into a single form. This is confirmed in the following statements:
1. "tayor eko balabhadro babhuva" (the two of Them then became one Balarama). 2. "nara-narayano bhavet. harir eva bhaven narah" (Nara-Narayana Rsis joined to become a single Lord Hari). (Krsna sandarbha 29.85)

94. "Her heart withered by cruel Kamsa's ferocious words, Rohini complained to Vasudeva, and Vasudeva sent her to Vraja. Riding on a horse, Rohini secretly entered the land of Vraja at dusk. Seeing chaste Rohini's arrival as an auspicious omen, everyone in King Nanda's assembly became happy at heart. Overcome with joy, Rohini and Yasoda embraced. They were like the Ganga and Yamuna flowing together.

95. "Then it was the month of Jyaistha. Seeing that Rohini was three months pregnant, Yasoda became very happy.

96. "On the delightful full-moon evening of the month of Magha, Yasoda served King Nanda and then, exhausted, fell asleep. In a dream she had a vision.

97. "In that dream a young boy was hiding behind a young girl. Placing His place in King Nanda's heart, the boy entered Yasoda's heart. The boy stayed in Yasoda's lotus heart. Then the young girl entered Yasoda womb. King Nanda also saw these bewildering activities. At first he was unhappy. Then he shook away that unhappiness and felt joyful."

98. In the heart Snigdhakantha thought, "This is all true. The truthful sage know this boy is the son of Nanda's and Yasoda. Considering all this, I agree with their conclusion." Then Snigdhakantha openly said, "Then? Then?"

99. Madhukantha said, "Seeing that Yasoda was now pregnant, all the women of Gokula became joyful. It is said: "Yasoda's face was effulgent. Her breast and belly had grown large. The word in everyone's ears was that she was now pregnant.

100. "Krsna now stayed in Yasoda's womb. Glistening like a lamp in a crystal base, He filled her with light that shone within and without.

101. "Wise Queen Yasoda thought profound thoughts and had a host of virtues. Peaceful, she controlled her tongue and senses. Still, there were some things she intently desired.

102. "Krsna present in her womb, she had the longings of a pregnant women. She longed for sweet-rice with fragrant camphor, sugar, ghee, and tulasi.

103. "Then Goddess Yogamaya suddenly ended Rohini's seven-month-old pregnancy and placed in Rohini's womb an unborn child taken from Devaki's womb. Then, in the fourteenth month, the month of Sravana, when the auspicious star Sravana conjoined with the moon, joyful Rohini gave birth to a handsome son glorious with all transcendental qualities. She was like a glorious moon effulgent with moonlight. She was like a lioness who has given birth to a very powerful cub. She was like a fresh lotus-lake in which a fragrant white lotus flower has bloomed. She was like pure knowledge that has given birth to all-auspicious glory.

104. "Rohini gave birth to a son with a glorious face, lighting-flash eyes, dark-cloud hair, a white autumn-cloud form, and great glory and prowess. Her son was very glorious and transcendental.

105. "Her son's form was fair and powerful without limit. The astrologers said, 'This boy will be the elder brother of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He will be the protector of the cows, and the killer of Dhenukasura, Pralambasura, Dvivida, and a host of demons. His arms will be long, His name will be Rama. In a past life He enjoyed pastimes with Lord Ramacandra.'

106. "Sent by Vasudeva, learned brahmanas named Sarma performed the nama-karana and other ceremonies for Balarama. Still, there was a sadness in Vraja.

107. "From the time of Balarama's birth a dull sadness was be seen in Vraja. For this sadness there was only one remedy. The remedy was the infant that appeared in Queen Yasoda meditations.

108. "After some days that infant entered Yasoda's womb. In the eighth month of Bhadra, on a Wednesday, during the auspicious astrological yoga named harsana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, shaking away the darkness of this world, appeared in this world to delight Nanda and Yasoda. (Gopala Campu 1.3.94-108)

- as asat (Vs 2.1.17,18)

"Objection: Taittiriya Upanisad 2.6.1 states 'In the beginning was asat.' The Supreme Lord is sat. How can asat coexist with sat? Reply: In this context, asat means 'unmanifest' and sat means 'manifest.' Both are attributes of the energy of the Supreme Lord. Because He has no material qualities, the Supreme Lord may be called asat (nothing, void)." "'Sat' and 'asat' indicate whether a thing is perceptible or not, not whether it exists or not." Also see Vs. 2.1.6, 2.4.3, SB 3.5.25, 10.87.29.

- body:

nirdosa purna guna grahatma tantre
niscetanatmaka-sarira-gunais ca hinah
sarvatra ca svagata-bheda-vivarjitatma

The Supreme Lord is endowed with all qualities in perfect, without birth, maintenance and destruction common to material bodies. His body is conscious, without material qualities, composed of bliss. His form is without distinctions between of body and possessor of the body, quality and possessor of the quality, without internal difference. (Narada Pancaratra)

For more quotes on Sri Krisna's nondifference from His name, body, etc. see the abheda compilation.

As far as 'leaving His body' (Mahabharata Mausala Parva... SB 1.14.8p., 3.4.29p. - His body in this world is from virat-rupa, 5.19.12, TLC 14, 3.4.33-34 - kridayopatta-dehasya - body accepted for pastimes, considered 'false lila' to fool the atheists - see Madhva's statements in Mahabharata-tatparya-nirnaya, CC 2.23.117-118 on illusory stories in Mahabharata etc.

"Various statements in the scriptures imply that Krishna is not the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For example, somewhere it is stated that Krishna is a plenary expansion from Narayana, elsewhere that He is an incarnation of Maha-Vishnu, and elsewhere an incarnation of the hair of Kshirodakasayi Vishnu. Still elsewhere He is said to be an incarnation of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, of Vamana, or of Lord Rama. There are many other statements in this vein. This Sandarbha puts such statements in proper perspective. In fact, here in the Krishna Sandarbha Srila Jiva Gosvami displays his brilliant scholarship more than in any other book." (Krishna Sandarbha article in BtG #27-04, 1993)
10.89.58 - [Mahavisnu:] "You are My expansions" since Krsna and Balarama appear through Ksirodakasayi Visnu

-favorite colors:

sa tvaM tri-loka-sthitaye sva-mAyayA
bibharSi zuklaM khalu varNam AtmanaH
sargAya raktaM rajasopabRMhitaM
kRSNaM ca varNaM tamasA janAtyaye
My Lord, Your form is transcendental to the three material modes, yet for the maintenance of the three worlds, You assume the white color of Vishnu in goodness; for creation, which is surrounded by the quality of passion, You appear reddish; and at the end, when there is a need for annihilation, which is surrounded by ignorance, You appear blackish. (SB 10.3.20)

bhakta-dhyAnAya sevAyai nAnA-rUpa-dharaM param
zukla-rakta-pIta-zyAmaM yugAnukramam eva ca
...who to give the devotees a chance to meditate on Him and serve Him appears in each yuga in forms that are either white, red, yellow, or blackish,... (Brahma-vaivarta Purana 4.21.179)

dhAmne caturNaM varNAnAM yugeSv eva caturSu ca
zukla-rakta-pIta-zyAma- bhidhAna-guNa-zAline
...who are the abode of the four varNas, who appear in the four yugas in white, red, yellow, and blackish forms with many names and transcendental qualities,... (Brahma-vaivarta Purana 4.21.207)

nIlaH zvetaH sitaH kRSNo gauraH pItAmbara-cchadaH
...who is dark bluish/blackish, white (zveta, sita, and gaura), who wears yellow garments,... (Balakrsna sahasra nama 75 - Narada Pancaratra 4.8)

nIlAmbaraH pIta-vAsA rakta-zveta-paricchadaH
[The Lord] wears dark blue, yellow, red and white garments. (Balakrsna sahasra nama 133 - Narada Pancaratra 4.8)

pItoSNISaH sitoSNISo raktoSNISo
[The Lord wears] a yellow turban, a white turban, or a red turban... Balabhadra sahasra nama 98 (Garga samhita 8.13)

raktA kRSNA sitA pItA sarva varNA nirIzvarI
[Laksmidevi has] red, blackish, white, yellow and all colors. (Laksmi sahasra nama 27, Skanda Purana)

zyamair gauraiz ca raktaiz ca zuklaiz ca pArSada-rSabhaiH
The associates [of the Lord are] of the hues of blue, yellow, red and white. (Brahma samhita 5.5)

...glorious with nails splendid like a host of moons, accompanied by blue, yellow, red, and white companions,... (Gautamiya Tantra, Govinda Vrndavana, ch. 1.27)

...His associates black, yellow, red and white, His form always playing in a nectar ocean of eternally blissful rasa-dance pastimes,... (Gautamiya Tantra, Govinda Vrndavana, ch. 1.56)

His nails are splendid like numberless moons. He is accompanied by a host of black, white, yellow and red associates. (Gautamiya Tantra, Govinda Vrndavana, ch. 1.106)

40 The great Kalavati garland always hangs around my neck. It is white, red, yellow and black.
41 The garland that is made of lotuses has the colour of asparagus flowers; Hastini is white as pure crystal.
42 Best of sons! Citrini, the giver of all auspiciousness, is yellow, while Gandhini, best of sons, is the colour of the Moringa plant. (Radha tantra 3.40-42)

- devotional service is eternal (no merging into the Lord) (SB 3.25.34)

naikatmatam me sprhayanti kecin
mat-pada-sevabhirata mad-ihah
ye 'nyonyato bhagavatah prasajya
sabhajayante mama paurusani

na - never; eka-atmatam - merging into oneness; me - My; sprhayanti - they desire; kecit - any; mat-pada-seva - the service of My lotus feet; abhiratah - engaged in; mat-ihah - endeavoring to attain Me; ye - those who; anyonyatah - mutually; bhagavatah - pure devotees; prasajya - assembling; sabhajayante - glorify; mama - My; paurusani - glorious activities.

A pure devotee, who is attached to the activities of devotional service and who always engages in the service of My lotus feet, never desires to become one with Me. Such a devotee, who is unflinchingly engaged, always glorifies My pastimes and activities.

"In these words [Gopala-tapani Upanisad 2.63, 2.91] the Lord declares that the devotees are eternally dear to Him and He also declares that He gives Himself as a gift to His devotees." (Govinda Bhasya to Vedanta sutra 3.3.47)

- eyes (irises) of dark blue color: Gita-govinda 10.5.1, Krsna-karnamrta 26,45; pink albuginea (aruNa IkSaNam, SB 10.51.2)

- "full knowledge of Krsna": to know 5 tattvas, subjects of Vedanta - isvara, jiva, prakrti, kala, karma, and His avirbhava and tirobhava as transcendent

- not known even to Brahma, Siva etc. (SB 4.29.42-44, 6.3.14-15, 8.12.10)

- in Dvaraka (outside of Vrndavan) as Vasudeva expansion:

kRtvA ca rAdhayA sArdhaM vrajam AgamitA punaH
prasthApayitA dvArAyAM paraM nArAyaNAMzakam

He will return to Vraja and again enjoy pastimes with Sri Radha. He will send His Narayana expansion back to Dvaraka. (Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.13.136)

...zrI-hari-vaMzokta-rAja-rAjAbhiSekAd dvArakAyAM catur-vyUhatva-prasiddhez ca

...As stated in Harivamsa, Lord, who was crowned king of Dvaraka, remained there with His catur-vyuha expansions. (Harivamsa quoted in Krsna sandarbha 92)

See also SB 3.1.34 and p.

- kings born on Earth from a part of Visnu (Brahmanda Purana

- life goal:

etavan eva loke 'smin
pumsah svarthah parah smrtah
ekanta-bhaktir govinde
yat sarvatra tad-iksanam

etavan - this much; eva - certainly; loke asmin - in this material world; pumsah - of the living entity; sva-arthah - the real self-interest; parah - transcendental; smrtah - regarded; ekanta-bhaktih - unalloyed devotional service; govinde - to Govinda; yat - which; sarvatra - everywhere; tat-iksanam - seeing the relationship with Govinda, Krsna.

In this material world, to render service to the lotus feet of Govinda, the cause of all causes, and to see Him everywhere, is the only goal of life. This much alone is the ultimate goal of human life, as explained by all the revealed scriptures. (SB 7.7.55)

- life stages: (according to Visvanatha Cakravarti commentary to SB 10.45.3)
appearance on Sravana Krsna Astami in Rohini naksatra (SB 10.3.1-5), (July 19/20, 3228 BCE)
3 years and 4 months - in Gokula [then He moved to Catikara - not mentioned by VCT]
3 years and 4 months - in Vrindavan
3 years and 4 months - in Nandagram
at 10 years 7 months (His permanent age) leaves for Mathura (end of commentary)
there He lives upto His 28 years and 4 months
leaves for Dvaraka for the next 96 years and 8 months
speaks Bhagavad-gita at Kuruksetra battle (aged 90) (3138 BCE or 3067 BCE
at 125 years ends His pastimes on the Earth (February 18, 3102 BCE; both dates of appearance and disappearance are commonly accepted)

- lilas - different versions: (Atma-tattva das) "Brahma lives very long time and during his life many Ramayanas take place. In every kalpa there is a little difference in them." This difference is called kalpa-bheda. Sastras must be understood through acaryas.

- "lotus feet" meaning: SB 1.8.22: pankaja-anghraye - unto You, the soles of whose feet are engraved with lotus flowers (and who are therefore said to possess lotus feet)

- names: "Because the Supreme Lord is the only cause, all names (e.g. the names of demigods) are really only His names." (Vedanta sutra 1.4.28; Rig Veda 10.82.3; Garuda Purana 3.24.45; Bhallaveya sruti; Skanda P.)

na ca viSNoH paraM kimcit pazyAmi puruSaM sthitam 63
itihAsa purANeSu lokevedAgameSu ca
tasmAt tvAm eva zaraNaM prapadye bhaktavatsala


...I don't see any other person than Visnu in Itihasas, Puranas, world of experience, Vedas and Agamas. Therefore I take shelter of you, Bhakta-vatsala... (Parama samhita 30.63-64)

vede rAmAyaNe caiva harivaMze ca bhArata
Adau madhye tathaivAnte hariH sarvatra gIyate

At the beginning, middle and the end of Vedas, Ramayana, Harivamsa and Mahabharata only Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is sung about everywhere. (Harivamsa 113.82)

- symbols on feet:

A complete description of Radha and Krishna gives Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti's Rupa cintamani.

- root of everything:

yat-prinanad barhisi deva-tiryan-
manusya-virut-trnam avirincat
priyeta sadyah sa ha visva jivah
pritah svayam pritim agad gayasya

yat-prinanat - because of pleasing the Supreme personality of Godhead; barhisi - in the sacrificial arena; deva-tiryak - the demigods and lower animals; manusya - human society; virut - the plants and trees; trnam - the grass; a-virincat - beginning from Lord Brahma; priyeta - becomes satisfied; sadyah - immediately; sah - that Supreme personality of Godhead; ha - indeed; visva jivah - maintains the living entities all over the universe; pritah - although naturally satisfied; svayam - personally; pritim - satisfaction; agat - he obtained; gayasya - of Maharaja Gaya.

When the Supreme Lord is pleased by a person's actions, automatically all the demigods, human beings, animals, birds, bees, creepers, trees, grass and all other living entities, beginning with Lord Brahma, are pleased. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supersoul of everyone, and He is by nature fully pleased. Nonetheless, He came to the arena of Maharaja Gaya and said, "I am fully pleased." (SB 5.15.13)

- worshiped by/superior to Siva and others: SB 3.15.42, 7.10.50, 7.15.77, 8.6.7, 8.8.27, 8.23.6, 9.10.12, 10.14.19, 10.38.8, 10.44.13,42, 10.47.62, 10.58.37, 10.68.37 etc.

Questions about Krsna
Sixty-Four Qualities of the Lord
What is God
Krsna in srutis
Time Line of Lord Krishna Supported by Science
Fools rush in… (a vision of Lord Krishna)


- meaning of the name: aradhyati krsnah anaya iti radha - one who devoutly worships is Radha

- sruti references: Radha is mentioned in Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. Sama Veda contains the etymological derivation of the word 'Radha': radha sabdasya vyutpattih samaveda. Nirupita is the word for Radha in Sama Veda. The word RAdhA is a combination of four root letters: Ra, A, Dha, A, each having its own significance.

Ra: rephohi koti janmagham karma bhogam subhasubham (dispels the sins of a million births and liberates one from the consequences of evil deeds)

AA: akara garbha basan ca, mrtyun ca rogam ucchrudet (emancipates one from the cycle of birth and death and terminates diseases and death)

Dha: dha kara ayusahan ucchrudet (prevents loss of longevity)

AA: akaro bhava bandhanah ucchrudet (frees one from the earthly bondage)

another explanations:

ramayA tu ra-kAraH syAd
A-kAras tv Adi-gopikA
dha-kAro dharayA hi syAd
A-kAro virajA nadI

R stands for RamA (the goddess of fortune), A stands for Adi-gopikA (the forst of the gopIs), DH stands for DharA (the earth), and A stands for VirajA-nadI (the VirajA river). (Garga samhita 1.15.68)

rAdhety evaM ca saMsiddhA
rA-kAro dAna-vAcakaH
dhA nirvANaM ca tad-dAtrI
tena rAdhA prakIrtitA

The syllable "rA" means "charity" and the syllable "dhA" means "liberation". Therefore RAdhA means "She who gives liberation in charity." (Brahma vaivarta Purana 4.17.228)

Chandogya Upanisad (of Sama Veda) 8.13.1 states: 'syamac chavalam prapadye, savalac chyamam prapadye, syamac.' 'By the help of black (syama), we shall be introduced to the service of white (savala); by the help of white (savala), we shall be introduced to the service of black (syama).' Here black indicates Krsna and white indicates the fair-complected Radha.

- smriti and tantra references: SB 10.30.28 - anayaradhitah, "by her the Lord is worshiped"; Bhavisya, Brahmanda, Brahma-vaivarta, Garuda, Narada (1.88.2: She is the origin of all Devis - sarvAdyAyA jaganmAtuH zrIrAdhAyAH samarcanam avatArakalAnAM hi papraccha vinayAnvitaH, their list beginning with Laksmi:
yathA lakSmI mukhAnAM tu avatArAH prakIrtitAH
tathA rAdhAvatArANAM zrotum icchAmi vaibhavam
1.88.4, Candravali and Lalita - 1.88.8), Padma (Adi/Svarga khanda, ch. 7, Patala khanda 2.69-99), Varaha, Vayu (ch. 104), Narada Pancaratra, Gita Govinda, Garga samhita, Caitanya Caitamrta 1.4.90 - ‘sarva-lakSmI’-zabda pUrve kariyAchi vyAkhyAna sarva-lakSmI-gaNera tiGho hana adhiSThAna etc.)

devi krishna-mayi prokta
radhika para-devata
sarva-lakshmi-mayi sarva
kantih sammohini para

"The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord." (Gautamiya Tantra)

"Central figure for all the goddesses of fortune" hints at the superiority of Krsna over Visnu.

'Radha' has not been mentioned in Mahabharata or even Harivamsa Purana but there is a mention of her name in Uttara and Patala Khanda of Padma Purana and in Narada Pancaratra. A detailed analysis is in Brahmavaivarta Purana, Part 4 - Sri Krsnajanma Khanda ('the Krsna birth episode'):

yatha radha priya visnos tasyah kundam priyam tatha
sarva-gopisu saivaika visnor atyanta-vallabha

"Just as Srimati Radharani is most dear to Sri Krsna, Her bathing place known as Radha-kunda is also dear to Him. Among all the gopis, Srimati Radharani is supermost and very dear to Lord Krsna." (Padma Purana)

trailokye prthivi dhanya yatra vrndavanam puri
tatrapi gopikah partha tatra radhabhidha mama

"O son of Prtha, in the three worlds the earth planet, where the town of Vrndavana is situated, is most fortunate. There the gopis stay. There My (beloved), who is named Radha, stays." (Adi Purana)

krsnasyardhanga sambhuta nathasya sadrsi sati
goloka vasina sreyam atra krsnajna adhuna
ayoni sambhava devi mula prakrti isvari

"The best of Goloka's residents appeared here by Krsna's command. She (Radha) is born of no mother and She (Radha) who is the fundamental Prakrti (the female energy) is a goddess and emerged from the better half of Krsna's being and molded after His image."

sri krsnasya tejasardhena sa ca murtimati sati
eka murtihi dvidha bhuva bhedo vedanirupita

"Radha embodies half the divine effulgence of Sri Krsna. They are both one body divided into two beings - such is the irrefutable decree of the Veda."

iyam stri sa puman kimva sa va kanta puman ayam
dvirupe tejas tulye rupenanca gunena ca
parakramenaca budhya va, jnanen sampadapi ca
purate gamane naiva kintu sa vayasadhika...

"In Their looks, in Their radiance, in Their attributes, in Their prowess, in Their wisdom, in Their intelligence and in Their riches, They are so identical to each other that it is difficult to tell Radha from Krsna or Krsna from Radha and that She precedes Krsna and is the older of the two."

eka IzaH prathamato dvidhA-rUpo babhUva saH
ekA strI viSNu-mAyA yA pumAn ekaH svayaM vibhuH

That one God first divided Himself into two parts. One part became female called Visnu Maya and the other part remained Himself as a male. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.24)

strI-jAty-adhiSThAtR-devIM mUla-prakRtim IzvarIm
tat-prANAdhiSThAtR-devIM tad-vAmAGga-samudbhavAm

That lady was the presiding Deity of the female sex, Mula Prakrti, Isvari and His prana. She is born from His left side. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.27)

rAse saMbhUya taruNIm AdadhAra hareH puraH
tena rAdhA samAkhyAtA purA-vidbhiz ca nArada

O Narada! The sages name her Radha as She appeared before Hari in Rasa mandalam, quite young and full of youth. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.36)

rA-zabdoc cAraNAd bhakto bhaktiM muktiM ca rAtiM saH
dhA-zabdoz cAraNenaiva dhAvaty eva hareH padam

On pronouncing merely the word "Ra" the devotees get bhakti and mukti. And on pronouncing the word "dha" one gets the region and place of Hari. (Narada Pancaratra 2.3.38)

Skanda Purana corroborates the fact that Radhika is a part of the Supreme Soul:

atmatu radhika tasya taiva ramanat asau

"Radhika is part of thy Supreme Soul (atma) and You dally with her (atma saha ramati iti atmarama). He, therefore, is called Atmarama."

Radha, a part and parcel of the same Supreme Soul, is the 'principle of ecstasy'. She is not anybody else's wife, dallying with Krsna in an extramarital situation. She is His Atma.

Ekanath Das: The Urdhvamnaya-tantra, also known as Urdhvamnaya-maha-tantra, differs from the Urdhvamnaya-samhita. Reference to the Urdhvamnaya-tantra is supposedly made in the Sadhana-dipika, a book by Narayana-bhatta. I could not find these references. The Urdhvamnaya-tantra is said to deal with various mantras unto Srimati Radharani, astaksara-vidhi (esoteric explanations of the Gopala-mantra) and Gopesvari-vidhana (procedure of initiation into Radha-mantra). It is said that parts of the work are scattered here and there. There doesn't seem to be a complete manuscript.

- age: Srimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth. (Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika 2.167); kanyAbhir dvy-aSTa-varSAbhiR - "Lord Krsna is surrounded by sixteen-year-old gopis." (Gautamiya Tantra, quoted in Priti sandarbha 285-286)

- appearance: Puranas give different versions about Her birth, according to different kalpas.
1. She was born in Gokula as a daughter of Vrsabhanu and Kalavati. (Brahmavaivarta Purana 2.49.35-42, Narada Purana 2.81, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Vraja-vilasa-stava)
2. When King Vrsabhanu was preparing the ground to conduct a yajna, he found Her in the earth, as Bhumi-kanya ("earth-girl," similarly to Sitadevi who was found in the wooden box buried in the earth, and to black Madonnas). (Padma Purana, Brahma Purana 7)
3. She was born from the left side of Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana)
4. At Krsna's birth Visnu asked His attendants to be born on earth. Radha took Her birth in Gokula under the star Jyestha in the morning of Suklastami day in Bhadrapada month.
In another kalpa she is found in Yamuna river on a golden lotus by Maharaja Vrsabhanu.

- eternally with the Lord: (Garga samhita 1.16.23-27)
You are the playful king of Goloka and She is Your playful companion. When You are the king of Vaikuntha, She, the daughter of Vrsabhanu, is Goddess Laksmi.
When in this world You are Ramacandra, She is Janaka's daughter Sita. When You are Lord Hari, She is Kamala. When You are Yajna-avatara, She is Sri Daksina, the best of wives.
When You are Nrsimha, She is Rama. When You are Nara's friend Narayana Rsi, She becomes Goddess Santi and follows You like a shadow.
When You are Brahman, She is Prakrti. When You are Time, the wise know She is Pradhana. When You are the Mahat-tattva, from which the universes have sprouted, Radha is the potency Maya, filled with the three modes.
When You become the four things in the heart [heart, mind, intelligence, and false ego], She becomes the power of understanding something from a hint. When You become the universal form, which includes everything, She becomes the earth.

See also SB 10.60.9 and Visnu Purana verse in purport.

- separated from Krsna for 100 years (during His Dvaraka stay) due to Sridama's curse (Brahma-vaivarta Purana):

6.243 O beautiful one, I will go to Mathura and because of Sridama's curse, We will be separated.

6.252 Beloved, during the hundred years We are separated We will meet in Our dreams again and again.

6.253 In My Narayana form I will go to Dvaraka for those hundred years. In that way I will enjoy My pastimes there.

These statements are reconciled in Sanatkumara samhita 302-303:

sri-narada uvaca
gate madhu-purim krsne
vipralambha-rasah katham
vasudeve radhikayah
samsayam cindhi me prabho

Shri Narada said: If when Lord Krishna goes to Mathura He manifests His more-perfect form of Vasudeva's son (which is different from the most-perfect form of Nanda's son), then how is it possible for Shri Radha to feel the pangs of separation from this form (a form different from the Vrindavana-Krishna)? O master, please cut apart this doubt.

sri-sadasiva uvaca
saktih samyogini kama
vama saktir viyogini
hladini kirtida-putri
caivam radha trayam vraje

Lord Sadashiva said: The Samyogini potency arranges the amorous pastimes of the divine couple, and the Viyogini potency arranges that the divine couple be separated. The Hladini potency is the Lord's pleasure potency. In Vraja Shri Radha is the manifestation of these three potencies.

Samyogini is the expansion of Sri Radha outside Vrndavan, when She meets Krsna at Kuruksetra. Viyogini is the expansion of Sri Radha in Gokula (Bhauma) Vrindavan after Krsna moves to Mathura. Hladini (Kirtida-putri, Vrsabhanu-nandini) is Her original form always present with Sri Krsna in Goloka (Divya) Vrndavan in asta-kaliya-lila.

- marriage (CC Adi 10.85p. - Jiva G., Brahmanda Purana, Canto 15 - Sri Krsnajanma khanda)

- the mother of Maha-Visnu (Brahma vaivarta Purana 4.92.66, Narada Pancaratra 1.12.61, 2.6.25, mahAviSNos prasU (Radha Pranama, Narada Pancaratra 2.4.49) etc. This lila seems to be recounted by Irenaeus in his Against Heresies I.29.4 as one of Gnostic teachings.

- eyes (irises) of blue (nIla) color: Sri Sri Radha-kripa-kataksa-stotra 7, Gita-govinda 10.13.2, Gopala-campu 2.34.8, Govinda-lilamrta 11.49,95, Mukta-carita, Krsna-bhavanamrta 5, 11 (sakhis), Nikunja-keli-virudavali

- tilaka: ...Sri Radha's tilaka is perfect, unbroken, graceful, and glorious with various colors. ...(Jiva Gosvami - Gopala campu 2.34.8)

In Vrndavana Radha's friends draw tilaka on Her face and say, "This is Sri Radha's face." I think this face is actually a beautiful moon risen from the churning of the great nectar ocean of the splendour of love for Lord Madana Gopala. (Prabodhananda Sarasvati - Sri Vrndavana mahimamrta 11.82)

Lalita: Then, taking musk from Krsna's chest, Ekanamsa placed a tilaka marking on Radha. (Rupa Gosvami - Dana keli kaumudi)

Srimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. ... (Rupa Gosvami - Sri Sri Radha Krsna ganoddesa dipika 2.200)

- as "HarA": (Narada-pancaratra 5.5.59) "zrI-harA" listed as one of the names of Srimati Radharani. This is actually a verse from the famous Radha-sahasra-nama-stotra (verse 59):

sri-rupa sri-hara sri-da
sri-kama sri-svarupini
sridamananda-datri ca

See more references: Sri Radha sastric references

Radha-Krsna Deities worship - origin:

CC Madhya 9.289 p.: "Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks that up to the advent of His Holiness Sripada Laksmipati Tirtha, it was the system in the disciplic succession of Madhvacarya to worship Lord Krsna alone. After Srila Madhavendra Puri, worship of both Radha and Krsna was established. For this reason Sri Madhavendra Puri is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love."

Astaratha Das: Started by Caitanya Mahaprabhu; philosophical basis is Gosvami-grantha, before that Radha was worshiped only as yantra; to prove genuineness of it was the reason of writing Govinda-bhasya (Baladeva Vidyabhusana).

Goloka - references:

Goloka is the supreme spiritual abode, where Sri Krsna lives with Sri Radha and Their innumerable devotees. It's beyond Vaikuntha and Sivaloka (vaikuNThaH zivalokaz ca golokaz ca tayoH paraH, Brahmavaivarta Purana 1.7.20). It's elaborately described in Srimad Bhagavatam 10, Brahma-samhita, Narada Pancaratra (tat sarvopari goloke; goloko nitya-vaikuNTho yathAkAzo yathA dizaH - "The eternal spiritual world of Goloka is situated in the spiritual sky." Lord Sadasiva speaks), Gopala-tapani Upanisad, Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.1.14, 4.9.14,15, 4.67.60, Skanda Purana, Sri Vaisnava khanda, Sri Vasudeva Mahatmya 14.10, Padma Purana, Bhagavata Mahatmya 5.72-77, Garga-samhita 1.23, 2.14, 8.13.141 (...parAt param mahA-rAja golokam dhAma yAti hi - Goloka is called "the highest of the high" abode), etc., Mahabharata/Narayaniya 12.330.68 quoted in Krsna sandarbha 106.104, Harivamsa (Visnu Parva 19 - gavam eva tu goloko) or Rig Veda samhita 1.154.6 (devanagari, transcription, and inexact translation):

ta vam vastUny usmasi gamadhyai
yatra gAvo bhUri-zrGgAyAsaH
atrAha tad urugAyasya varNaH
paramam padam avabhAti bhUri

"We wish to go to Your [Radha's and Krsna's] beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugaya [Krsna who is much praised]."

Goloka vs. Gokula:

yathA prakaTa-lIlAyAH
purANeSu prakIrtitAH
tathA te nitya-lIlAyAM
santi vRndAvane bhuvi

Lord Krsna’s eternal pastimes in the spiritual world of Vrndavana are exactly like His manifested pastimes in earthly Vrndavana, as described in the Puranas.

gamanAgamane nityam
tathaiva vana-goSThayoH
go-caraNaM vayasyaz ca

In the spiritual world of Vrndavana there is the same coming and going to the forest and village of Vraja, the same herding of the cows, and the same friends. Only the killing of the demons is absent. (Sanatkumara samhita 181-182)

Navadvipa as a section of Goloka

The Supreme Absolute truth Sri Krishna, desiring to fulfill these three inner longings, assumes the form of Sri Krishna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Deeply absorbed in the mood of munificence (audarya), He eternally performs unlimited pastimes in Sri Navadvipa Dhama, which is situated in a special section of Vaikuntha named Goloka. There in the seat of His eternal transcendental pastimes (nitya lila pitha) He tastes these three sentiments. (Bhaktivinod Thakur - Sanmodana bhasya to Siksastaka 8)

Sri Radha's name in the SB

Madhavananda Dasa GGS, Gopal Jiu Publications,

Although Radharani's name does not appear directly in the Bhagavatam Sukadeva Gosvami has given it in many places in an indirect way. I have heard from my Guru Maharaja that Sukadeva Gosvami did not mention Radharani's name directly because he was the parrot of Radha and if he had mentioned Her name directly he would have gone into ecstatic trance for six months. As Maharaja Pariksit had only seven days to hear Srimad Bhagavatam he gave Radha's name in an indirect, hidden way. He cited the writings of Srila Sanatana Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami who have described the Bhagavatam phrase "sri suka uvaca" to mean "suka" - the parrot, of "Sri" - Radha.

As this is a very big topic I will present only a few items here. Perhaps some other Vaishnavas may want to append to this.

Srila Prabhupada has addressed the subject of Radha's name in the Bhagavatam in several places. In CC Madhya 8.100 Ramananda Raya cites SB 10.30.28:

anayarAdhito nUnam
bhagavAn harir IzvaraH
yan no vihAya govindaH
prIto yam anayAd rahaH

"[When the gopis began to talk among themselves, they said:] 'Dear friends, the gopi who has been taken away by Krsna to a secluded place must have worshiped the Lord more than anyone else.'"

In his purport Srila Prabhupada writes:

"The name Radha is derived from this verse (SB 10.30.28), from the words anayaradhitah, meaning "by Her the Lord is worshiped." Sometimes the critics of Srimad-Bhagavatam find it difficult to find Radharani's holy name in that book, but the secret is disclosed here in the word aradhita, from which the name Radha has come. Of course, the name of Radharani is directly mentioned in other Puranas. This gopi's worship of Krsna is topmost, and therefore Her name is Radha, or 'the topmost worshiper.'"

Although Radharani's name is only given in an indirect way in the Bhagavatam, rasika Vaishnavas see Her presence in each and every verse. Sanatana Gosvami, Jiva Gosvami and Vishvanatha Chakravarti have given many purports showing how Sukadeva Gosvami has given Radharani's name in an indirect way. In his commentary on the first verse of the Bhagavatam Jiva gives a long explanation of how the verse is referring to Radha. A few other examples of Sukadeva's indirect references to Radha follow:

In SB 10.32.4 Sukadeva has said, "kacit karambujam saurer jagrhe 'njalina - one of them seized Krsna's hand in her folded palms." Kacit refers to "*one* of them." That one is Radharani.

SB 10.30.38 describes:

evam uktah priyam Aha
skandha Aruhyatam iti
tatas cAntardadhe kRSNaH
sa vadhUr anvatapyata

"After being addressed by a particular gopi, Krsna told Her, "Climb up on My shoulder." Saying this He suddenly disappeared. Sa vadhur anvatapyata - His beloved consort (Radharani) then immediately felt great remorse."

SB 10.30.26 describes how after Krsna left the rasa dance with one special gopi the other gopis went searching for "vadhvah"- that special gopi (Radharani).

In the Bhramara-gita (SB 10.47.11) Sri Sukadeva describes:

kacin madhukaram dRStvA
dhyAyanti kRSNa-sangamam
priya-prasthApitam dUtam
kalpayitvedam abravIt

"*One* of the gopis, while meditating on Her previous association with Krsna, saw a honeybee before Her and imagined it to be a messenger sent by Her beloved. Thus She spoke as follows."

The word "kacin" in this verse, meaning "one of the gopis" refers to Radha.

Aside from the Bhagavatam, Radharani is described elaborately in Brahma-vaivarta, Padma, and Narada Puranas as well as Garga Samhita. In the 4th chapter of Ujjvala-nilamani, "Sri Radha-prakaranam" texts 3 and 4, Rupapada cites the Gopala-tapani Upanisad (of Atharva Veda), Uttara-khanda, where Radha is called Gandharvi and the Rg Veda-parisista where Her name Radha is mentioned. There She is described as the consort of Madhava.

A note of interest: Although this verse was quoted by Rupa, the original texts for this part of the Gopal-tapani Upanisad were unknown to scholars for many, many years. In 1966 one Vaishnava scholar here in Orissa named Fakir Mohan Das discovered original palm leaf copies of this rare literature in the Balasore district of northern Orissa. After finding it he quickly reprinted it to preserve it.

The following is an excerpt from an article written by Dr Fakir Mohan entitled "The History of Sri Sri Radha Krsna Worship in Orissan Culture":

"In Ujjvala Nilamani Srila Rupa Goswami cites the Gopala Tapani Upanisad and the Rg Parisista to show the authenticity of the worship of Srimati Radharani: gopalottaratapinyam yad gandharveti visrutah radhet rk parisiste ca, etc.

'From the Vedic literature we come to know that Sri Radharani is referred to as 'Gandharvi' in the second part of the Gopal Tapani, and as 'Radha' in the Rg Parishistha.'

"Srila Vishvanath Cakravarti Thakur and Baladev Vidyabhushan have stated in their commentaries on Gopala Tapani Upanisad that this tapani of the Atharva Veda, Paippalada branch, was previously being recited by the brahmanas of Gujarat and Orissa. Although presently there are no brahmanas of the Atharva Veda Paippalada branch found in Gujarat, thousands of this lineage are still living in the vicinity of the village Remuna, the birth place of Srila Baladev Vidyabhushan, and in other places of Orissa. In the absence of any help from ancient manuscripts, the original text of the Paippalada Samhita can be reconstructed even today from the tradition, which the village reciters still carry with them unimpaired. In this area some rare Paippalada Samhita manuscripts have been found along with a number of hitherto unknown manuals of special Paippalada rites which give an insight into the social, religious and cultural traditions of Paippaladiyans found in the tapani literature.

"In the 18th century, Srila Baladeva Vidyabhushan has quoted the Purusa-bodhini Sruti, Purusottama Tapini, in his Prameya Ratnavali in connection with the worship of Sri Sri Radha Krsna in the Vedic period. Vaishnava poets like Anandi of Nilachala Dhama and Narahari Cakravarti of Sri Khanda, Bengal, have quoted from the Purusa-bodhini Sruti to establish the authentic nature of the worship of Sri Sri Radha Krsna and Gauranga Mahaprabhu.

"Later in the 18th century, Srila Radha Krsna Goswami, the disciple of Haridas Pandit (who was the grand-disciple of Gadadhar Pandit Goswami of Puri), published four prapathakas (chapters) of the Purusa-bodhini sruti in his Sadhana-dipika. Thakur Bhaktivinode of village Chotimangalpur in Kendrapara District, Orissa, also collected the Sri Caitanya Upanisad of the Paippalada branch from Pandit Madhusudan Das of Sambalpur, Orissa, publishing it in 1887. In 1901 Mahamahopadhyaya Sadashiva Kavyakantha of Puri published some additional chapters of this Sruti. In 1966 we collected all twelve prapathakas of this Purusa-bodhini Sruti from different parts of Orissa and published them from our Sri Bhaktivinode Library in Baripada."

For other references on this subject from Srila Prabhupada's books, one may refer to the second to the last paragraph of Prabhupada's purport to SB 10.3.31. Also CC Madhya 18.8 which cites Padma Purana on the glories of Radha-kunda. And CC Adi 4.83 which addresses the glories of Radharani from the Brhad-gautamiya-tantra.

Tattvas II.

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