| |

Garuda Purana

tr. J.L. Shastri/A board of scholars, Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology 12-14, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1982.
(extracts with notes in [] by JanM, 1997)

1. Acara (Karma) kanda, 2. Dharma (Preta) kanda, 3. Brahma (Moksa) kanda

kalau yuge sarva purANa madhye trINy eva mukhyAni haripriyANi /
mukhyaM purANaM hi kalau nRNAM ca zreyas karaM bhAgavataM purANam // GarP_3,1.43 //
pUrvaM hi sRSTiH pratipAdyate tra yato hy ato bhAgavataM paraM smRtam /
yasmin purANe kathayanti sRSTiM hy Adau viSNor brahma rudrAdikAnAm // GarP_3,1.44 //
nAnArtham evaM kathayanti vipra nIcocca rUpaM jJAnam Ahur mahAntaH /
tenaiva siddhaM pravadanti sarvaM hy ataH paraM bhAgavataM purANam // GarP_3,1.45 //
tataH paraM viSNu purANam Ahus tataH paraM gAruDa saMjJakaM ca /
trINy eva mukhyA ni kalau nRNAM tu tathA vizeSo gAruDe kiJcid asti // GarP_3,1.46 //

"In Kali yuga, there are three prominent among all Puranas. The main Purana in Kali yuga, providing asupiciousness to the people, is Bhagavata Purana. ... Hence, Bhagavata is the highest of all Puranas. The Visnu Purana comes next, then comes Garuda. The three are principal Puranas in the Kali age. Garuda contains some additional matter." (GaruDa PurANa 3.1.43-6, Venkatesvara ed.)


1.2.15 Lord Visnu is devoid of physical body

1.4.37-8 perfect brahmacaris attain Brahmaloka, perfect grhasthas Prajapatiloka, perfect vanaprasthas Saptarsiloka, perfect sannyasis the imperishable region (Brahman)

1.5.2-5 mind-created sons [of Brahma], seven types of pitas - Barhisads, Agnisvattas, Kravyadas, Ajyapas, Sukalins, Upahutas and Dipas - of whom three are formless and four having forms

1.5.14-16 ...Sumati, the wife of Kratu, gave birth to Balakhilyas (Valikhilyas). Sixty thousand in number, resplendent like the blazing sun, although they were of the size of thumb - they became sages of sublimated vitality.

1.15.* Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra

1.19.19 om kuru kunde (or kule) svaha [pranesvari vidya, against serpents]

1.19.23 om hrim hraum hrim hrim bhirundayai svaha (recited to the ear of the patient removes poison)

1.45.* characteristics of salagrama

1.46.* vastu-puja (worship of the site for building, choosing places of objects and their orientation)

1.50.69 "Then he shall perform the fire yajnas to gods, to the living beings, to the manes, to men and to the Brahma(n). [panca-maha-yajna]

1.50.70 "If he has already performed Brahma yajna [Manu 3.70] before Tarpana (water offering to deva-rsi-bhuta), he can proceed with his study of Vedas after performing Manusya yajna (the sacrifice to men).

1.50.71 Vaisva deva (oblations to fire before meals intended for all deities collectively) shall be performed - it is called Deva yajna. The offering to bhutas - living beings or spirits - is to be known as bhuta yajna.

1.50.72 Food offerings to dogs, svapacas (outcastes), fallen people, on the ground outside (the house) as also to the birds.

1.50.73 Pitr yajna is conducive to liberation. The best man shall feed a single brahmana bearing all the manes in mind. It has to be performed every day faithfully."

1.51.* charity

1.58.8-22 sun, sage, yaksa, raksasa, apsara, gandharva, serpent [of sun god's suite change] in each of 12 months: sages pray to the sun, gandharvas sing in front, apsaras dance, raksasas walk behind the sun, serpents bear the yoke, yaksas catch hold of the reins, Valikhilyas sit surrounding the sun.

1.59.-62.* astrology (Lord Hari speaks to Rudra)

1.59.40 "Add together the letters in the names of the husband and wife. Divide by three. If two is the remainder, wife is harmed, if one or zero, husband is harmed."

1.60.15-17 Hikka (sound of hiccup) when heard from east: great results, south-east: sorrow and anxiety, south: loss, south-west: sorrow and anxiety, west: sumptuous feast, north-west: money, north: quarrel.


1.63.5-6 people destined to become: great men or kings - one hair in each pore, great scholars and Vedic interpreters - two hairs out of each pore, poor - three hairs out of each pore.

1.63.10-14 three parallel lines on forehead: happy with children, life up to 60 years, 2 lines: 40 years, 1 line: 20 years, 3 lines extending up to ears: up to 100 years, 2 lines up to ears: 70 years, 3 lines partly distinct and partly indistinct: 60 years, if the number of lines decreases: reduce 20 years from the previous, if the lines are broken in the middle, premature death is the result

1.64.6 "A real wife is like a minister for the personal affairs of her husband, a friend in executing his tasks, in affectionate dealings she is like his mother and in his bed she is like a courtesan to him. Such a wife is auspicious."

1.64.8 woman with hairy sides and breasts and high lips: husband dies soon

1.64.11 little finger and thumb of a woman placed on the ground do not rest there: she will become a widow and of ill repute

1.64.12 woman who shakes the ground as she treads, kills her husband quickly and lives like a mleccha woman

1.65.57-60 (-> Samudrika) a round face: prosperity, lady will beget son, a long face: poverty, misfortune, great sorrow, a square face: coward, sinner, rogue, a depressed face: issuelessness, a short face: miserliness

1.65.112 If the palm is placed on the ground and the little finger and the ring finger do not touch the ground, she is surely a whore.

1.65.114 long neck of woman: destruction of family

1.65.115 stout neck: she becomes very fierce. Squint in the eyes, dark blue or tawny in the eyes, roving eyes: absence of chastity

1.65.116 If when she smiles two dimples are seen in the cheeks, she is surely one adulteress.

1.65.117 ...if the buttocks hang down, she kills her husband. A mustache-like growth of hair above the upper lip is inauspicious for the husband.

1.65.118 Hairy breasts are inauspicious and uneven ears too are inauspicious.

1.65.119 If the gum is dark blue, she is a thief, if the teeth are long, she will bring about the death of her husband.

1.65.120 An elevated upper lip indicates quarrelsome nature and harshness in speech.

1.67.* [Siva tells Gauri after hearing from Visnu:] svarodaya or parama-vijaya (planets and nadis in the body -> auspicious/ inauspicious times)

1.68.9-10 "These are the different kinds of gems: Vajra (diamond), Mukta (pearl), Mani (gems), Padmaraga (ruby), Marakata (emerald), Indranila (sapphire), Vaidurya (lapis lazuli), Pusparaga (topaz), Karketana (?, Karkenata - a species of quartz), Pulaka, Rudhira (blood red stone), Sphatika (crystal), Vidruma (coral). Persons who know gems have classified them thus."

1.68.12 Gems bought or first used in a bad lagna or inauspicious day become defective and lose even their merits.

1.68.27-29 diamonds with defects - inauspicious, bring bad luck up to death

1.70.19 "If anyone wears a gem of many flaws our of ignorance, then grief, anxiety, sickness, death, loss of wealth and other evils torment him."

1.70.30 "Even one Candala can attack and kill a number of brahmanas. Similarly, a spurious alien gem can nullify the potency of many gems endowed with good qualities."

1.81.24 "He who takes a holy dip in the tirtha of Manasa (mind) that has the eddy of Jnana (pure knowledge) and the pure water of Dhyana (meditation) that removes the dirt of Raga (passion) and Dvesa (hatred) attains the supreme goal."


1.93.11-13 Garbhadhana (conception) [is performed] after the menstruation, Pumsavana before throbbing of the child in the womb [with purpose to get a son], Simanta [parting child's hair] in the sixth or eighth month, Prasava (delivery), Jatakarma (birth) [for child's welfare], Namakarana (naming) on the eleventh day, Niskramana (coming out of the house for the first time) in the fourth month, Annaprasana (first feeding with the solid food) in the sixth month, and Cudakarana (cutting of the hair for the first time, only tuft - cuda - is left) as per practice in the family. Thus the sin of seed and conception is nullified. To girls these rites are performed without mantras.

1.94.17 ...One shall never find fault with the food served. (+1.96.16)

1.95.24-26 The highest duty of a woman is to carry out the behests of her husband. Sixteen nights subsequent to the month menstrual flow are the nights of rut for women. The husband shall restrain himself during the parvan (full moon and new moon days), when the stars Magha and Mula are ascendant and on the first four nights. Thereafter, on even nights, he will be able to beget a healthy son of auspicious traits. If the woman is in a mood to receive him on any night he should satisfy her remembering that lust in women is terrible.

1.96.72 "By eating garlic and onion one becomes sinful and as atonement one should perform Candrayana. If one takes meat after worshiping deities and manes in Sraddha one does not acquire sin."

1.96.73 "If one kills animals otherwise (and eats their flesh) he will fall into hell and remain there for as many days as there are hairs on that animal. Eschewing flesh a devotee attains God Hari after due prayer."

1.97.10 "...[for purification] he should touch his right ear. Gods of Fire, etc. stay in the right ear of a brahmana.

1.98.3 A gift should never be taken by a person devoid of learning and austerity. By taking it he degrades the giver as well as himself.

1.98.8 The giver [of the cow] remains in heaven for as many years as there are hairs on the body of that cow. If the cow is tawny, it enables his seven generations to cross hell.

1.98.14 "The giver of the Vedas (in manuscript) attains the region of Brahma not accessible even to gods. Those who transcribe the Vedas with meanings, yajna sastras, dharma sastras, on payment, also attain the region of Brahma.

1.98.15 "Since God has created the universe with Vedas as the basis, collection of Vedic texts with bhasyas (commentaries) should be done with effort.

1.98.16 "He who transcribes Itihasas (epics) or Puranas or makes a gift of them,

1.98.17 attains merit equal to that of gifting Vedic text or even twice the fruit."

1.101.2 [The nine planets:] "The Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu."

1.101.3 "The malignant aspect is countermanded respectively by wearing copper, bell metal, crystal, the red sandalwood, gold, silver, iron, lead and bell metal on their bodies."

1.101.4 "O sages, know their respective colors to be red, white, red, yellow, yellow, white, black, black and black."

1.104.* specific karmic reactions for specific sinners and sins

1.105.48 Willful abortion and hatred of the husband are great sins in women without any expiation. [This chapter deals with atonements for specific sins.]

1.106.* pretasauca (rites and impurity subsequent to death of persons)

1.106.6 not to cry for dead person


1.107.3 In the Kali age charity is the main virtue. Other virtues are likely to forsake the doer. Sinful deeds are perpetrated only in the Kali age. A curse bears fruit in a year.

1.107.28 "If the husband is untraceable, dead, or has renounced the world, is impotent or degraded - in these cases of emergency a woman can remarry."

1.107.29 "A wife who dies in the company of her husband [sati] shall remain in heaven as many years as there are hairs on his person."

(Brhaspati Niti Sara 1.108-115:)

Suta said:

1.108.1. Now I shall explain the essence of polity based on economics for the benefit of kings and others. It is holy conducive to longevity, heavenly bliss, etc.

1.108.2. A person wishing for success and achievement should always associate with good men: never with the wicked; it is good neither for this nor the other world.

1.108.3. One should always avoid arguments with mean-minded base people and shun even the sight of the wicked. He should avoid enmity with friends and intimacy with persons serving the enemy.

1.108.4. Even the scholar comes to grief by trying to advise a foolish disciple, by supporting a wicked wife and by keeping the company of the wicked men.

1.108.5. One should keep aloof from a brahmana foolishly puerile, a ksatriya averse to fighting, a vaishya sluggish and inactive and a sudra hot-headed and vain due to complete, defective study.

1.108.6. Alliance with an enemy or estrangement with a friend should be indulged in at proper time. A true scholar bides his time after a careful consideration of causes and effects.

1.108.7. Time allows all living beings to mature, time brings the dissolution of all people. Even when people are asleep, time is watchful and awake, it is difficult to transgress time.

1.108.8. The semen virile flows out at proper time and develops itself in the womb. It is time that causes creation and it is time again that effects dissolution.

1.108.9. The passage of time is incomprehensible. It has two-fold functions, an apparent gross movement at one place and a subtle invisible movement at another.

1.108.10. The divine preceptor Brihaspati expounded the essence of polity to god Indra which got him omniscience and heavenly glory after killing the asuras.

1.108.11. The worship of gods, brahmanas, etc. should be performed by saintly kings and brahmanas. They should also perform the horse sacrifice to wipe off their sins both small and great.

1.108.12. A person never comes to grief if he associates with good people, conducts discourses with scholars and contracts intimate friendship with persons devoid of greed.

1.108.13. Illicit contact with or gay revelries in the company of another man's wife, desire for another man's wealth or residence in another man's house shall never be pursued.

1.108.14. A well-intentioned enemy is actually a kinsman and a kinsman acting against one's interests is an enemy. Sickness in the body is inimical and a herb in the forest is friendly and beneficial.

1.108.15. He is a kinsman who works to our benefit; he is the real father who nurtures and nourishes us; he is a friend where confidence can be placed; it is the native land where sustenance is available.

1.108.16. He is the true servant who is loyal and obedient; it is the real seed that germinates well; she is the real wife who speaks pleasantly and he is the real son who lives to the family tradition.

1.108.17. His life is perfect who has virtues and good qualities; fruitless, indeed, is the life of a man devoid of these two.

1.108.18. A true wife manages the household affairs skilfully, speaks sweet pleasant words, solely dedicates herself to her husband and is loyally devoted to him.

1.108.19-21. The man who has a wife endowed with these qualities is no less than Indra, the lord of heaven. He is no ordinary man. The good wife takes her daily bath, applies sweet scents to her body, speaks sweetly, is satisfied with limited quantity of food, is not garrulous, has always auspicious things around her, is very scrupulous in virtuous activities, exhibits her love to her husband by every action and is pleased to surrender herself to his dalliance after the four days of the menstrual flow. She enhances the good luck of everyone.

1.108.22-23. What we call old age is not so dispiriting as a wife devoid of good qualities and possessing all bad traits - ugly-eyed, slovenly, quarrelsome, argumentative, visiting other people's house frequently, depending on other people's help, evil in actions and devoid of shame.

1.108.24. A wife who appreciates good qualities, devoted to her husband, and satisfied with the minimum in everything is real beloved.

1.108.25. It is death indeed if one has a wicked wife, a rogue as a friend, a servant who answers back and serpents infesting his house.

1.108.26. Forsake the contact with wicked people, resort to the assembly of the good; do meritorious acts day and night and remember the unstability of everything.

1.108.27. A woman devoid of love, terrific in appearance, ferocious by nature, more horrible than a serpent round the neck, tigerlike in having ruddy eyes, appearing to spit fire, desirous of visiting other houses and cities should never be approached.

1.108.28. Devotion in the son, good deed in the ungrateful, coldness in the fire may occur sometime by God's grace; but love in a prostitute is never come across.

1.108.29. Who can be complacent and carefree if serpents infest the house wherever we cast our eyes, if sickness cannot be cured with all appliances of treatment and if death is ever ready to pounce on the body at every age from infancy to old age?

Suta said:

1.109.1. Money should be saved for emergency; wife should be protected by spending hoarded wealth and one's own self should be saved even at the risk of preserved assets and wife.

1.109.2. One should sacrifice oneself to save the family; a family should be sacrificed to save the village; a village should be sacrificed for the safety of the land and the land should be sacrificed to save one's soul.

1.109.3. The residence in hell is better than that in a house of evil conduct. By the former, one's sins are washed away whereas there is no redemption from the latter.

1.109.4. The intelligent man fixes one foot firmly and moves with the other. Without testing the new place well, the old place of resort should not be abandoned.

1.109.5. One should unhesitatingly abandon a country infested with men of evil conduct, a residence of harassing environment, a king of miserly temperament, and a friend of deceptive disposition.

1.109.6. What purpose can be served by the riches in the hands of a miser? Of what avail to men can that knowledge be that is tarnished by a roguish disposition? Of what avail is beauty bereft of good qualities and valour? Of what value is a friend who turns his face away at the time of misfortune?

1.109.7. Many persons unknown to him before will flock round a person occupying a high post as his friends and assistants. Time being adverse, if he loses his wealth and is dismissed from his post even his kinsmen become his enemies.

1.109.8. A friend can be found out if he is genuine or otherwise in times of danger; the test of valour is the battlefield; the test of purity of a man is his conduct in isolated places. Loss of wealth puts fidelity of the wife to a test and famine provides an opportunity to test whether a man is fond of entertaining a guest or otherwise.

1.109.9. Birds leave off the tree when the fruits are exhausted; the sarasa [bird] quits the lake when it is dried up; the courtesan turns out the man who has no money in his pockets; ministers bid good-bye to the king who has lost his throne; honeybees never touch the flower that is faded and withered; the deer flee the forest consumed by fire - so it is evident that people take delight in things that delight them. Who takes interest in others otherwise?

1.109.10. One should propitiate a greedy man by giving him money; a praiseworthy man by reverence with joined palms; a fool by allowing him to do as he pleases and the scholar by a clear statement of facts.

1.109.11. Devas, good people and brahmanas are pleased with genuine good nature; the ordinary vulgar people by an offer of something to eat or drink and the learned scholars by due honour and fitting rewards.

1.109.12. The noblest can be won over by humility and submission; the rogue with a threat; the vulgar with small gifts and concessions and men of equal status by exhibiting an equal strength and valour.

1.109.13. An intelligent man must penetrate deep into the innermost recesses of everyone's heart and speak and act befitting his nature and inclination and win him over to his side.

1.109.14. Implicit trust in rivers, clawed beasts, horned animals, armed men, women and scions of royal families is never to be encouraged.

1.109.15. Men of sense will never disclose loss of wealth, mental anguish, illicit actions in the house, deception (of which they had been the victim) and disrespect.

1.109.16. The following are the activities that bring about the destruction of chastity and good conduct in women: association with base and wicked people, a long separation from the husband, too much of consideration and love shown to them (by the would-be defiler) and residence in another man's house.

1.109.17. Which family is devoid of defects? Who is not distressed by sickness? Who is not oppressed by vices and calamities? Who enjoys continuous blessings of the goddess of fortune?

1.109.18. Who is the man in the wide world who does not become haughty on attaining wealth? Who has escaped miseries in his life? Whose mind is not ripped asunder by maidens? Who has been a favourite of kings forever? Who is that suppliant who has won honour and respect? Who is that fortunate fellow who has escaped unscathed after having once fallen into the wily nets of the wicked?

1.109.19. He who has no friends, relatives or kinsmen to advise him and he who has no intrinsic intellect in himself suffers certainly. How can a wise man pursue that activity which does not produce any tangible result even when completed successfully but which necessarily ushers in great sorrow when left incomplete?

1.109.20. One should leave off that land where no one honours him or loves him; where there is no kinsman, and where there are no amenities for higher learning.

1.109.21. Earn that wealth to which there is no danger from kings or robbers and which does not leave you even after your death.

1.109.22. The wealth that a man acquires by putting in exertions risking his own life is divided among themselves by his successors after his death. Only the sin that he commits in his eagerness to earn remains his exclusive property.

1.109.23. Amassed and deposited wealth of the miser is ransacked by others frequently like that of the mouse and is conducive to sorrow.

1.109.24. Beggars roaming the streets, naked, grief-stricken, rough and armed with broken bowls point out to the world that the fruits the non-charitable persons reap are like these.

1.109.25. O misers! The beggars who request you saying "Please give" really teach you that this is the result of not giving. Do not become like them.

1.109.26. A miser's hoarded wealth is not being employed in hundreds of sacrifices (e.g. for good purposes) nor it is being given in charity to the deserving; but in the end, it is utilised in the houses of robbers or put in the king's treasury.

1.109.27. The wealth of the miser does not go unto the deities, brahmanas, relatives or to himself but it goes unto the robbers or kings or is consumed by fire.

1.109.28. Let those riches be not thine - the riches acquired with great deal of toil, by transgressing the curbs of virtue or by falling at the feet of the enemy.

1.109.29. A blow of destruction to learning is absence of practice; wearing rags is a blow unto the goddess of wealth; eating after digestion is a blow to sickness; and craftiness is a blow to the enemy.

1.109.30. A fitting punishment to the thief is the death sentence; being reserved is the best punishment for a false friend; lying on a separate bed is a punishment for women, and non invitation in sacrifice is a punishment for brahmanas.

1.109.31. Wicked persons, artisans, slaves, defiled ones, drums and women are softened by being beaten; they do not deserve gentle handling.

1.109.32. By sending them on errands the ability of servants can be known; sincerity of kinsmen can be known by their behaviour during our adversity; the genuine friendship can be understood when some mishap occurs and the fidelity of the wife is known when one's fortune dwindles.

1.109.33. The diet of a woman is twice as much as that of a man; shrewdness four times, energy is six times and amorousness is eight times as much as that of a man.

1.109.34. It is impossible to overcome sleep by sleeping it off; to overpower a woman by loving her; to smother a flame by adding fuel and to quench thirst by drinking wine.

1.109.35. A delicious fatty meat diet, pleasing dress, glowing wine, fragrant scented pastes, and sweet smelling flowers kindle passion in women.

1.109.36. It can be said with certainty that even during the period of celibacy the god of love is busily active. On seeing a man pleasing to her heart the vagina of a woman becomes wet with profuse secretion.

1.109.37. O Saunaka, it is true, definitely true that the vaginal passage of a woman begins to secrete profusely on seeing a well dressed man whether a brother or a son.

1.109.38. Rivers and women are of similar nature in their love of freedom to choose their own course. The rivers erode the banks and the women undermine their own families.

1.109.39. The river undermines the banks and the woman causes the fall of the family. The course of rivers and women is wayward and cannot be checked.

1.109.40. A blazing fire cannot be satiated with sufficient supply of fuel; the ocean can never be filled to satiety by rivers flowing into it; the god of death is never satiated by the living beings (whom he smites) and a passionate woman is never satiated with man.

1.109.41. It is impossible to be satiated with the company of good men, friends, men of delightful conversation, and pleasures, sons, life and boons.

1.109.42. A king is never gratified with his ambitious activity of amassing wealth; a sea is never gratified with a perennial flow of water into it; a scholar is never satiated with the talks and speeches given by him; no layman's eye is satiated with the glimpses of the king that he gets.

1.109.43. They maintain themselves by what they earn by doing their duties; they are devoted to the sacred scriptures; they are fond of their own wives; they have subjugated the unreasonable wanderings of the sense organs; they are delighted in serving guests; they attain salvation at their very doors; they are the excellent among men.

1.109.44. If the wife is after your heart, if she is attractive, well bedecked and delightful, if you live in your own house; it is heaven indeed which can be obtained only by good deeds performed in previous birth.

1.109.45. Women are incorrigible; they can never be brought round by making a gift, or offering respect, or a straightforward dealing, or repeated service. They can neither be threatened with a weapon nor asked to be quiet by citing scriptural codes.

1.109.46. Five things should be pursued slowly and cautiously. Learning, riches, ascending to mountain, amorous approach to women, and assimilation of virtuous conduct.

1.109.47. Worship to gods is of permanent benefit; a present to a brahmana leaves a permanent blessing behind; a thoroughly good learning has an everlasting beneficent result and a good bosom friend is a permanent asset.

1.109.48. Those who have not acquired enough learning during studentship and those who have not secured a decent wife and sufficient wealth during youth are to be pitied forever. They are no better than beasts, but have a human form.

1.109.49. A person devoted to the scriptural codes shall not worry over the meal. He must ponder over a regular study. A man seeking knowledge must be prepared to go a long way with the speed of Garuda.

1.109.50. Those who had been unmindful of studies during studentship and those who had wasted their wealth during youth in pursuit of lust fall into a miserable plight during old age slighted by others and burning within like the lotuses in the winter season.

1.109.51. Arguments are never stable and irrefutable; Vedas are wide and varied; there is no sage who has not mentioned something different from others. Still the central theme of virtue is hidden in a cave, as it were. Hence, the path traversed by great men should be taken as the correct one.

1.109.52. The inner workings of a man's mind should be inferred from his facial reflexes, behaviour, gestures, movements, speech and the contractions and distortions of his eyes and lips.

1.109.53. A spoken word is understood by even a beast. Horses and elephants carry out the orders given. But a scholar infers what is not expressly stated. Intellect is fruitful in being able to comprehend others's gestures.

1.109.54. Deprived of wealth one should go on a pilgrimage; going astray from truth one cannot but fall into the hell Raurava; though failing in the initial attempt in the yogic practice one shall continue to be strictly truthful; a king divested of his royal splendour has no other alternative but go a hunting.

Suta said:

1.110.1. If a person forsakes things of sure results in his pursuit of things of uncertain results he loses both - the certain as well as the uncertain.

1.110.2. No thrilling pleasure is felt by a man bereft of the mechanism of speech though he may be learned as in the case of a coward holding the sword in his hand or of a blind man wedded to a beautiful wife.

1.110.3. It is the fruit of no small penance to posses both delicious foodstuffs and good appetite; sexual virility and healthy as well as handsome wives, extensive wealth and desire to give it to others.

1.110.4. The aim of the study of Vedas is the ability to perform Agnihotra; everything auspicious should have the invariable results of good conduct and purposeful life; a good wife must yield perfect sexual pleasure and good offsprings and wealth is for both charity and personal enjoyment.

1.110.5. An intelligent man should marry a girl of noble family though not very beautiful; he shall not marry a girl of low descent though she may be beautiful and have developed hips.

1.110.6. Of what avail is the wealth which brings disaster in its wake? Who will dare to remove the crest jewel of a serpent embedded on its hood?

1.110.7. Butter for sacrificial purposes can be taken even from the family of wicked persons; a wise saying uttered by even a child should be listened to; gold can be taken even from the heap of rubbish and a jewel of a girl [stri-ratna] can be brought even from a mean family.

1.110.8. Nectar may be taken from even a poison-infested spot; gold can be taken even from a heap of rubbish; good learning may be received even from a mean-minded person and a girl of low parentage can be wedded if she has good qualities.

1.110.9. Friendship with a king is an impossibility; a serpent devoid of poison is unheard of; a household cannot remain pure if too many women flock there together.

1.110.10. A devoted servant should be engaged in household duties; a son should be engaged in study; an enemy should be employed in acts of vice and a friend in virtuous acts.

1.110.11. Servants and ornaments should be put in proper places; a crest-jewel worn on the foot will never shine.

1.110.12. Crest-jewel, ocean, fire, bell, the vast expanse of the firmament and king - these have to be at the head; it is wrong to keep them at the foot.

1.110.13. A man of stuff will have access to one of the two goals like a bunch of flowers. Either he is at the head of everyone or he fades in a forest.

1.110.14. If a fine jewel worthy of being set in a fine earring is worn on the foot it will not take away the brilliance. It is only the wearer who will be criticised by others.

1.110.15. Great is the difference between any two members of each of these: horses, elephants, iron, wood, stone, cloth, women, men and water.

1.110.16. It is impossible to deprive a courageous man of his good qualities though he may be tortured and tormented. Even if it is suppressed by a rogue the flame of a fire does not shoot downwards.

1.110.17. A horse of good breed does not brook a cut from the wip; a lion cannot bear to hear the trumpeting sound of an elephant. A true hero does not coolly listen to the loud boasts of his enemy.

1.110.18. None shall deign to serve the wicked or the base even if unfortunately deprived of wealth of fallen from a high position. Even though oppressed by hunger the lion does not stoop to graze the grass. It is satisfied only when it drinks the hot blood of elephants.

1.110.19. He who tries to cultivate again the friendship of one who has once deceived him really seeks his own death like the she-mule that conceives.

1.110.20. The children of an enemy shall never be neglected or treated with indifference by sane men in spite of the fact that they may be speaking sweet words. After the lapse of some time they may be very dangerous and terrible like vessels of poison.

1.110.21. If a thorn pricks the foot, another thorn is held in the hand with which the former one is removed. Similarly, an enemy should be wiped off by another enemy whose help for the nonce can be secured by an act of gratification.

1.110.22. None need worry about a man who constantly harasses him. Such people will fall off themselves like the trees on the banks of rivers.

1.110.23. When fate is adverse, disastrous harmful things may seem to be auspicious and vice versa. This attitude shall eventually bring destruction, too.

1.110.24. If the fate is favourable, naturally, good fruitful thoughts beffiting the matter on hand occur to everyone everywhere.

1.110.25. Unnecessary bashfulness and reserve need not be felt in monetary transactions, acquisition of knowledge, taking food and dealings (with the wife in the bed chamber).

1.110.26. None shall stay in a place where these five do not live: rich men, Vedic scholar, king, river and a physician.

1.110.27. Even a day's stay shall be avoided in places where means of livelihood, fear of law, sense of shame, courteousness and liberal-mindedness are not available.

1.110.28. One shall not think of staying permanently in a place where these five are not available: an astrologer, a Vedic scholar, a king, a river and a saint.

1.110.29. O Saunaka, knowledge is not the monopoly of anyone. All do not know everything; there is no omniscient being anywhere.

1.110.30. In this world we cannot find an omniscient man nor a person utterly foolish. A man can be considered base, middling, or highly intelligent in accordance with the type of knowledge he possesses.

Suta said:

1.111.1. I should now mention the characteristic features of the king as well as the servants. A king should examine the following carefully.

1.111.2. He should protect the kingdom with devotion to truth and virtue. He should righteously rule over the earth after conquering the enemy.

1.111.3. A florist collects flower after flower but does not uproot the plant. The king should also do likewise but not like the maker of charcoal who burns the entire tree in the forest.

1.111.4. Those who milk the cow and drink milk do not do so if it is turned sour. So also the king should not defile the kingdom of the enemy which is expected to be enjoyed.

1.111.5. The man who wants cow's milk does not cut off its udder. He draws the milk no doubt. Similarly, the king who wants to tap the resources of a kingdom shall avoid injury to the same.

1.111.6. Hence, the king should rule over the earth with care and exertion. In that case the earth, the fame, longevity, renown and strength shall all be truly his.

1.111.7. The king of well controlled sense organs will be able to protect the subjects only if his rule is righteous and if he worships Lord Vishnu and is eager to render service to cows and brahmanas.

1.111.8. After acquiring prosperity which is not permanent it is essential that a king should turn his attention to virtue. All riches will perish in a moment but not the wealth of the soul.

1.111.9. Indeed, it is pleasing to gratify the lust. It is true that riches are highly pleasant. But life is as fickle as the roving glances of a winsome maiden.

1.111.10. Threatening us like the tigress, old age is waiting for an attack on us. Diseases like enemies crop up all over the body. Life flows out like water from a broken pot. Still no one in the world does ever think of a redeeming the soul.

1.111.11. O men! Do service unto others. Do what will be beneficent later on. Why do you rejoice now, without any suspicion whatsoever, along with the bevy of beautiful damsels, smitten by the arrows of Cupid, with your eyes very slow (to see what is in store for you)? Do not commit sins. Taking brahmanas and Lord Vishnu as your refuge begin worship. Your life is slowly coming to an end like water in a pot. In the guise of death a great spirit will pounce upon you.

1.111.12. He is a wise man who regards another man's wife as his mother, another man's wealth as a lump of clay and all living beings like himself.

1.111.13. It is for this that brahmanas wish their kings to be rich, that in all their rites their words should be heeded and never slighted.

1.111.14. It is for this that kings board wealth that after serving themselves they shall give unto the brahmanas what is left over.

1.111.15. The king in whose realm the sound of Om uttered by the brahmanas is resonant, flourishes. Getting whatever he wants he is never tormented by sickness.

1.111.16. Even the apparently incompetent sages can gather the riches and articles of daily use. Then why cannot a king who protects his subjects like his children?

1.111.17. He who has riches has many friends. He who has riches has many kins. People consider him who has riches fit to be called a man and a scholar.

1.111.18. Friends, sons, wives and relatives abandon a man devoid of wealth. When he regains his lost wealth hey come back to him. Hence, wealth alone is a man's kith and kin and none other.

1.111.19. The king who has discarded the sacred code is no better than a blind man. A blind man may well see through spies but not so a man devoid of sacred codes.

1.111.20. The kingdom of that king is indeed unstable whose sons, servants, ministers, priests and sense organs are not active and alert but always asleep.

1.111.21. He who has acquired the valuable support of the three sons, servants and kins has actually conquered the earth girdled by the four oceans along with the kings.

1.111.22. The king who transgresses the injunctions of scriptures and the dictates of reason perishes here in this world and forfeits the right to heaven.

1.111.23. A king surrounded by calamities should not lose heart. He should maintain equanimity both in happiness and sorrow and should never lose enlightened delight of the soul.

1.111.24. Courageous souls never become grief-stricken when mishaps occur. Does not the moon rise again though gobbled up by Rahu?

1.111.25. Fie, fie upon men who yearn for the pleasures of body. Do not grieve over the thinness of body or loss of wealth. It is well known that the sons of Pandu and their wife suffered poverty for some time but came unscathed through it and were happy forever.

1.111.26. A king should maintain teams of courtesans and patronize their arts of music and dance. He should give sufficient protection to the science of archery and economics, too.

1.111.27. The king who becomes angry with his servants without sufficient cause actually takes in the poison vomited by a black serpent.

1.111.28. A king should avoid fickleness and false utterances towards all men, especially to Vedic scholars and his personal attendants.

1.111.29. Proud of his servants and kinsmen, if a king remains complacent and begins sports and dalliance he is sure to be outwitted by the enemy.

1.111.30. It is despicable on his part to fret and fume without faults in others. He who punishes servants unjustifiably becomes a victim of the enemie's attack.

1.111.31. A king should abandon sensuous enjoyments and pleasures. Such people become easy targets of enemies who are always on the alert.

1.111.32. Enterprise, adventurousness, courage, intellect, prowess and valour - he who possesses these six is viewed with suspicious awe even by devas.

1.111.33. Where results are not remarkable even after energetic exertion it is due to an adverse fate. Still man should put up endeavour and take resort to fruitful activities.

Suta said:

1.112.1. Servants are of various types - the excellent, the middling and the base. They should be employed befittingly in the three types of jobs.

1.112.2. I shall narrate the mode of test for servants and the qualities necessary for different jobs as narrated by authorities on them.

1.112.3. Just as gold is tested in the four ways by rubbing on the touchstone, cutting, beating and melting, so also a servant is tested by his appearance, conduct, parentage and activities.

1.112.4. A man of noble family, endowed with good character and qualities, truthful and virtuous, handsome and pleasant-mannered should be appointed as the officer-in-charge of the treasury.

1.112.5. He who can appraise the value, shape and size (of gold, gems etc.), should be appointed as the chief jeweller. A man who can understand strength and weakness of the soldiers should be appointed as the commander-in-chief.

1.112.6. The chief of watch and ward should be a mind-reader who can understand each and every gesture, is strong, comely to look at, unerring and competent to strike a timely blow.

1.112.7. The chief secretary to the king should be intelligent, clever in conversation, shrewd, truthful in speech, with sense organs under his control, and acquainted with all sastras.

1.112.8. The chief ambassador should be intelligent, sensible, a reader of others' minds, ruthless and blunt in speaking facts.

1.112.9. The officer-in-charge virtue should be well versed in smrti texts, a scholar of great erudition, with good control over his sense organs and equipped with the qualities of heroism, valour and other good qualities.

1.112.10. The head cook should be a man whose father and grandfather had served in a similar capacity. He should be skilful, truthful and acquainted with sastras. He should be clean in person and capable of hard work.

1.112.11. The royal physician shall be well-versed in Ayurveda with enough practical experience. He should have all the qualities of a decent man and look comely in appearance.

1.112.12. The royal priest should be a great scholar in Vedas and their ancillaries. He should be observing japas and homas. He should readily bless everyone.

1.112.13. Whether he is a writer, or a reciter, an accountant or a chief executive, if anyone is found to be lazy, he should at once be dismissed.

1.112.14. The mouths of a wicked man and a serpent are sources of distress - since they are double-tongued, causing pain, ruthless and terrific.

1.112.15. A wicked man should be avoided even if he happens to be a scholar. Is not a serpent terrific though its head is bedecked with a precious gem?

1.112.16. Who is not afraid of the wicked who is furious without provocation? It is the wicked from whose mouth the poison of a great serpent in the form of unbearable words flows out continuously.

1.112.17. If a salaried servant of the king becomes so rich as to vie with him, is of equal competency, knows his inner secrets and vulnerable points, is very industrious and puts up a claim to half of his kingdom there is no harm if the king puts him to death.

1.112.18. Those servants are not to be retained who were at first valorous, slow and gentle of speech, truthful and self-controlled but later on proved to be otherwise.

1.112.19. Servants of this type are very rare - servants who are not lazy, who are satisfied, who can be easily roused from sleep in emergency, who have the equanimity in happiness and sorrow and who are courageous.

1.112.20. A servant suffering from all these bad points or from anyone of them should be summarily dismissed - devoid of patience, dishonest, cruel-tempered, speaking ill of others, haughty, gluttonous, roguish, greedy, inefficient and cowardly.

1.112.21. The king shall keep in his fort strong weapons of all types and then try to conquer his enemies.

1.112.22. If he is not well equipped he should make peace with his enemy for a period of six months or a year and when he is well equipped he shall attack the enemy.

1.112.23. If a king engages foolish persons in various offices the results will be ignominy, loss of wealth and hell after death.

1.112.24. Whatever the king does himself or whatever his servants do meritorious or sinful, the king has to reap the fruits thereof. He will flourish or fall as the case may be.

1.112.25. Hence, a king should employ intelligent and capable men in offices of virtue or wealth for the welfare of cows and brahmanas in the state.

Suta said:

1.113.1. One should employ only the capable servant and not the inefficient. All good qualities can be found in a scholar and all faults in a fool.

1.113.2. One should always sit in the company of the good and associate with them. Discussions and friendship should ever be with the good and not with the wicked.

1.113.3. Even in a prison one should associate only with the learned, the humble, the virtuous and the truthful. Outside, he should never associate with the wicked.

1.113.4. Completing all works left unfinished he shall become wealthy. He should make it a point to complete unfinished tasks.

1.113.5. Like the honeybee that sucks honey but does not cause the fall of the flower the king should take revenue from the realm without harming it. The cowherd leaves something for the calf and milks the rest. Similarly, the king should milk the earth but leave plenty for the calves, i.e. the subjects.

1.113.6. Just as the honeybee collects honey from a number of flowers so the king should gather wealth taking a little from each.

1.113.7. The anthill, honey, the moon in the bright half and alms wax little by little.

1.113.8. Seeing that collyrium and ink, used though very little every day, become exhausted after some time, and that the anthill flourishes day by day, one should be careful in not wasting one's time. One should engage oneself in activities of charity or self-study.

1.113.9. A vicious and lustful man shall find hundreds of obstacles even in the forest; but if he can control his five senses he can practice penance even in his house. He who is engaged in activities not censurable and he who is free from passion can make his house a hermitage.

1.113.10. Virtue is protected by truth, knowledge by further acquisition, a pot by frequent cleaning and a family by good conduct.

1.113.11. It is better to stay in the forest of Vindhya, to die without partaking of food; it is better to sleep in a spot infested by serpents or to leap into a well; it is better to plunge into a whirlpool or a dangerous water current than to say "Please give" or beg for a sum of money from one's own kindred.

1.113.12. Riches dwindle when fortune dwindles and not by enjoyment; if merit had been acquired before, riches will never perish.

1.113.13. Knowledge is an ornament to a brahmana; a king is the beautifier of the world; the moon is an ornament of the sky; a good conduct is an ornament to everyone.

1.113.14. Bhima, Arjuna and others were born as princes, they were pleasing and delightful like the moon; they were valorous, truthful, brilliant like the sun and were kindly protected by Lord Krsna. Even they were subjected to abject misery by the influence of evil planets; they had to beg for alms; if fate is adverse who is capable of what? The current of previous actions tosses everyone about.

1.113.15. Obeisance to karma which forces Brahma to work like a potter in the bowls of cosmos, by which Vishnu was cast into distress of ten incarnations; by which Rudra was compelled to beg for alms with a skull in his hand and at the behest of which the sun goes round and round in the sky.

1.113.16. The donor was king Bali, the receiver Lord Vishnu himself, the gift consisted of whole Earth and that too in the presence of learned brahmanas. What did he get in return? Only bondage. O fate! obeisance to thee - who workest as it pleasest thee.

1.113.17. The mother is goddess Laksmi herself; the father is Lord Vishnu; still if the son (Cupid) were to be of crooked mind, who is to be punished for the same?

1.113.18. Man enjoys only the fruits of his previous actions; whatever he has done in the previous births has its reactions now.

1.113.19. The happiness is enjoined by oneself, the sorrow too is enjoined by oneself; even the womb selected by him is in accordance with the action of the previous birth.

1.113.20. A man can never forsake the action done by him far into the sky, or deep into the sea or high on the mountain; whether he is held by his mother on her head or kept in her lap.

1.113.21. Even Ravana perished at the hands of time. Ravana whose fortress was the mountain Trikuta, the moat - the very ocean; soldiers - Raksasas; the action of the highest order; and the sastra propounded by Usanas [Sukra].

1.113.22. Everything happens in the age, time, day, night, hour or moment as is ordained beforehand; not otherwise.

1.113.23. Whether people go up in the sky, or deep in the nether world; whether they traverse all quarters, they will not get what is not given by karma.

1.113.24. The learning of bygone days, the money made over as gift and the actions done before - these run ahead of a person who walks at speed.

1.113.25. Actions alone are of consequence. See Janaki (Sita), whose marriage was celebrated when the stars and planets were ascendant and the lagna (i.e. auspicious hour) was decided by sage Vasistha himself, had to undergo miseries.

1.113.26. Auspicious signs, characteristic marks are of no avail when karma comes into clash; for Rama who had stout muscular calves, Laksmana who was as swift as sound and Sita who had thickly grown glossy hair - all these had to suffer a lot.

1.113.27-28. Neither the son with Pinda-dana and other rites nor the father with various rites for the welfare of the son can ward off the adverse influence of karma. In the physical bodies born as a result of karma, different kinds of illness, physical or mental, fall in quick succession like the shafts discharged by a skilful archer. Hence, a courageous man should view objects in the light of shastric injunctions and not otherwise.

1.113.29. In every birth, a man reaps the fruits of his previous merits and demerits in the respective ages of infancy, youth or old age at which the actions had been performed.

1.113.30. Just as a gale blows a boat, the karma drags a man against his wish even from foreign countries to the place where he has to reap the fruits.

1.113.31. A man necessarily gets what he is destined to get. Even a god is incapable of stopping it. Hence, I do not bewail or am not surprised at the events. The line of fate cannot be erased.

1.113.32. When chased, a serpent escapes into a well, an elephant to the trunk (to which it can be tethered); a mouse to its hole; but who can fly from karma which is quicker than all these?

1.113.33. A well-assimilated knowledge never diminishes; it increases on being imparted to others like the water in a well which increases when water is drawn out.

1.113.34. Riches acquired virtuously become stable; they flourish still more with virtue. Hence, when you aim at riches, remember this and seek virtue. You thus become great in the world.

1.113.35. None becomes miserable, if seeking virtue, he undergoes the same hardships as a poor layman does seeking food.

1.113.36. Of all purities, purity of food is excellent. If a man incurs impurity by taking unwholesome food, he cannot be cleansed with clay or water or any other substance of cleanliness.

1.113.37. These are five cleansing agents - truthfulness, pure mind, suppression of sense organs, sympathy with all living beings and water, the fifth of the series.

1.113.38. He who maintains truthfulness and purity finds an easy access to heaven. Truthfulness is superior to even horse sacrifice.

1.113.39. A man habitually wicked in deeds, with his conscience benumbed with evil thoughts, cannot be cleansed with a thousand lumps of clay or a hundred pots of water.

1.113.40. He who keeps his hands and feet clean, his mind under perfect control, and acquires learning, penance and fame, reaps the fruit of pilgrimage.

1.113.41. The characteristics of a saintly man are: he is not elated much when honoured, he does not become angry when slighted, he does not speak harsh words in anger.

1.113.42. No one feels satisfied at the outset on hearing wholesome advice at the proper time from a poor man though intelligent and sweet-voiced.

1.113.43. What men are not destined to get cannot be secured by them through mantras, strength, valour, intellect or manliness. What is there to lament over?

1.113.44. I have secured something unsolicited. When I sent it back, it went away from where it had come. What is there to lament over?

1.113.45. During nights birds flock together on a tree for rest. In the mornings they go to different quarters. What is there to lament over?

1.113.46. All have the same destination. All are proceeding there. If one among them goes more quickly what is there to lament over?

1.113.47. O Saunaka, the living beings arise from the unmanifest; at their death they dissolve themselves in the unmanifest. In between they remain manifest. What is there to lament over?

1.113.48. If the time of death has not been reached no one dies even if pierced with a hundred arrows. If the same has arrived he does not survive even a slight prick with the tip of a kusa grass.

1.113.49. A man gets only those things he is destined to get; he goes only to those places where he has to go (at the behest of karma) and whether misery or pleasure he gets only what he has to get.

1.113.50. A man gets things from karma only. Why should he shout and cry? Even if prodded, flowers and fruits do not transgress their stipulated time (they do not come out earlier or later). So is the case with karma of the previous birth.

1.113.51. Neither conduct, nor parentage, neither learning, nor knowledge, neither the qualities, nor the purity of seed fructifies in man. As in the case of trees, good deeds acquired by austerities fructify in men.

1.113.52. A man meets with death where there is a slayer or riches where there is plenty. Goaded by karma a man goes to the respective places.

1.113.53-56. Just as a calf can recognize its mother in the midst of a thousand cows, the previous karma approaches the doer. Enjoy your merits, o fool! Why should you feel aggrieved? What you do now will certainly follow you hereafter whether good or bad.

1.113.57. The vicious and the mean observe other's faults, be they so little as the mustard seeds. They see but pretend not to see their own faults as big as bilva fruits.

1.113.58. O brahmana! Nowhere can they find happiness, who are defiled by lust and hatred. After careful consideration I see that there is pleasure where there is enlightened bliss.

1.113.59. Attachment is a cause of misery; since apprehension follows in the wake of attachment. If, therefore, attachment is eschewed one should be happy.

1.113.60. The body is the base for misery and happiness. Life and body are born together.

1.113.61. Pleasure and pain can be defined briefly. Whatever goes in the possession of others is misery, whatever remains in one's possession is pleasure.

1.113.62. After pleasure comes the pain and after pain comes the pleasure. Pleasure and pain whirl like wheels in human life.

1.113.63. What has passed has gone forever; if anything is to happen it is still far off. He who minds the present alone is not afflicted by sorrow.

Suta said:

1.114.1. None is friend or enemy to any other person by nature. Friendship and enmity arise from special causes.

1.114.2. The two syllables "mitram" (friend) signify solace in sorrow, freedom from fear and preservation of love and confidence. By whom has this jewel been created?

1.114.3. If anyone says for once the two letters "Hari" he has everything made ready for his journey to salvation.

1.114.4. Men cannot have as much confidence in mothers, wives, brothers or sons as in a friend of kindred nature.

1.114.5. If you wish for a prolonged friendship, avoid the following three, gambling with him, monetary transactions with him and seeing his wife in his absence.

1.114.6. One should not sit in the same seat with one's mother, sister and daughter in an isolated place. The powerful sense organs can drag even an erudite man (into the mire of lust). What of common men?

1.114.7. God of love compels persons to turn their attention to such spots as provide risks, death and punishments and not to one's own? [i.e. People do not love their wives but run after other women risking even death].

1.114.8. It is easier to gauge the velocity of the hailstorm at the time of the final dissolution, the speed of the racing horse and the depth of the great ocean than the heart of the person who does not love.

1.114.9. O Saunaka, if there is no opportune moment, if there is no privacy and if there is no one to make overtures women shall preserve chastity.

1.114.10. She serves one man but cherishes love for another. In the absence of man a woman can very well be chaste.

1.114.11. A mother moved by passion may commit some misdeeds. Though the sons may disapprove of the conduct yet they shall not worry much about them.

1.114.12. The body of a courtesan is prized in the world; the body that is held at stake always with the neck torn by the hoofs of debauches and hence always agitated and anxious. Her sleep is dependent on others' convenience; she has to follow the wishes of others and without a show of sorrow she has to laugh and sport always.

1.114.13. Fire, water, women, fools, serpents and royal households - these are to be resorted to by others always, yet they take away one's life all of a sudden.

1.114.14. What is there to wonder at, if a brahmana well versed in grammar becomes a great scholar? What is there to wonder at, if a king well versed in polity and administration becomes a virtuous king? What is there to wonder at, if a young woman endowed with beauty and charms errs from chastity? What is there to wonder at, if a poor man begins to commit sins sometimes?

1.114.15. Do not allow others to see your vulnerable points; but note others carefully like a tortoise that keeps all its limbs safe in its shell.

1.114.16. Women may be confined to the nether worlds or may be imprisoned with high walls all round. Still if there is no moving glossy tuft of hair who can see them? [Using her long tresses she will escape from these places].

1.114.17. One's own kinsman pursuing the same activities and knowing his vulnerable points is the fiercest foe. Even an enemy standing outside cannot injure so much.

1.114.18. He is the real scholar who pleases children with sweets, the good people with humility, the women with wealth, the deities with penance and people [by work] for their welfare.

1.114.19. They are not wise who try to win over a friend by deception, to secure virtue through sins, to attain wealth by harassing others, to learn with pleasure and to secure a lady's love through harshness.

1.114.20. Even a pure action may be defiled and defective when the root is cut off. It is only the senseless man who will cut off a tree laden with fruits in order to secure the fruits.

1.114.21. O brahmana, I do not believe that a man with necessary things can become a saint even if he tries. How can a woman drinking wine be chaste as well?

1.114.22. One shall not place trust in a person not trustworthy. Even friends are not to be trusted. Some time later if he is angry the friend may publicise his secrets.

1.114.23. A general confidence in all living beings is sattvika but the main characteristic of a saintly man is to keep his feelings a secret forever.

1.114.24. Whatever action is done it follows the doer. Whatever may be your action, do not leave off your courage and intellect.

1.114.25. An intelligent man shall avoid these six: old women (for sexual purposes), fresh wine, dry meat, carrot, curd in the night and sleep during the day.

1.114.26. To a poor man a party of guests is poison (involving expenses); to an old man a woman in the prime of her youth is poison; an ill assimilated knowledge is poison; eating before digestion is poison.

1.114.27. To a man of undaunted spirit honour is pleasing; overthrow of administration is pleasing to the vile; to a poor man a charitable gift is pleasing and a woman in the prime of her youth is pleasing to a young man.

1.114.28. The six main reasons for sickness in men are: excessive drinking of water; eating hard indigestible foodstuffs; wastage of semen virile; holding up of faeces and urine (not evacuating them immediately); sleep during the day and keeping awake at night.

1.114.29. Early morning rays of the sun, excessive indulgence in sexual intercourse, the smoke column rising from the cremation ground, warming of the palms and the constant sight of the face of a woman in her menses - all these reduce the longevity of a man.

1.114.30. The following six take away one's life immediately: dry meat, old women (if cohabited with), the early morning sun, very sour curd, sleeping and having sexual intercourse in the morning.

1.114.31. These six things instill more vitality into the human organism: fresh melted butter, grapes, cohabitation with a woman in the prime of her youth; a milk diet, hot water and the shade of a spreading tree.

1.114.32. The water in a well, the shade of a banyan tree and the well-rounded breasts of a young woman - these three are warm in winter and cool in summer.

1.114.33. The three instantaneously invigorating things are: a young woman, oil bath and a wholesome food. The three instantaneously debilitating things are: a hazardous journey, sexual intercourse and fever.

1.114.34. Dry meat watered down with milk shall not be taken in the company of wife, friends or the king. If taken, an immediate separation from them is inevitable.

1.114.35. Goddess of wealth forsakes a man habitually wearing dirty clothes, allowing dirt to accumulate on the teeth, eating too much, habitually speaking harsh words and sleeping at sunrise and sunset, even if he happens to be Vishnu.

1.114.36. Cutting of grass frequently, writing on the ground with the toes, chafing of the feet, neglect of the cleaning of teeth, wearing dirty clothes, keeping the hair rough, sleeping at dawn and dusk, lying down naked, eating and laughing excessively, drumming on one's own limbs or on the seat - these may destroy the affluence of even Lord Vishnu.

1.114.37. These six bring back one's wealth long lost: keeping the head cleaned and washed, keeping the feet spotlessly pure, keeping the company of excellent women, taking food in limited quantities, lying on the bed without stripping and sexual intercourse excluding the festival nights.

1.114.38. Ill luck and misfortune can be warded off by wearing a flower on the head and especially the white one.

1.114.39. Ill luck frequently resides in the back shadow of a lamp, the shadow of a cot, the shadow of a seat and the water used by washermen.

1.114.40. The rays of the early morning sun, the column of smoke rising from a funeral pyre, intercourse with an old woman, very sour curd and the dust from a broom should not be resorted to by those who wish for longevity.

1.114.41. The dust of elephants, horses, chariots, grains and cows is auspicious. That from ass, camel, goat and sheep is inauspicious.

1.114.42. The dust of cows, the dust of grains and the dust from the limbs of one's own son - these are very holy, they destroy even the great sins.

1.114.43. The dust of a goat, the dust of an ass and the dust from a broom - these are unholy and conducive great sin.

1.114.44. The wind blowing from the winnowing basket, the water dripping from the nails, the water from the cloth and pot used for bathing, the dust from the broom and the water dripping from hair - all these destroy merits previously acquired.

1.114.45. One shall never walk between two brahmanas, a brahmana and fire, a husband and wife, two masters, two horses and two bulls.

1.114.46. What wise man will have confidence in women, kings, fires, serpents, studies, the enemy, worldly enjoyment, etc.?

1.114.47. Do not trust the incredulous; do not place too much of confidence even in the trustworthy; there is a lurking danger in reposing trust; it may uproot one.

1.114.48. He who remains complacent after making peace with the enemy has actually gone to sleep atop the tree, he will wake up after his fall.

1.114.49. One should never be too soft nor too cruel in action. The soft would be crushed with the soft and the ruthless with the ruthless.

1.114.50. One should never be too straightforward nor too soft. Straight trees are cut in a forest and the crooked trees remain as they were.

1.114.51. Meritorious persons bow down like the fruit-laden trees. Dry trees and fools would rather break than bend at all.

1.114.52. Miseries come unsolicited; they go away as they come. Just as the cat pounces upon its prey, man seeking things shall pounce on happiness.

1.114.53. Riches go before and after the noble but not so in the case of ignoble. You can do as you please.

1.114.54. A counsel in six ears (discussed among three persons) is leaked out immediately; that in four ears is kept for some time but the one in two ears cannot be understood even by Brahma.

1.114.55. Of what avail is the cow which neither yields the milk nor becomes pregnant? Of what purpose is a son who is neither virtuous nor scholarly?

1.114.56. The whole family is lit up by a single good son endowed with learning, intelligence and valour like the sky with the moon.

1.114.57. The whole forest is rendered fragrant by a single tree in full bloom like the family by a virtuous son.

1.114.58. One good son alone is preferable to a hundred ones devoid of good qualities. The moon alone dispels darkness and not the stars in their thousands.

1.114.59. The son should be fondled for five years and thrashed for the next ten years; when he reaches the sixteenth year he should be treated like a friend.

1.114.60. You cannot find an enemy like a son - on being born the son takes away one's wife [when a son is born mother's attention is more to the son than to her husband]; while growing up he takes away wealth and if by chance he dies he takes away the life of the father, too.

1.114.61. In the world some men are like tigers with the mouth of a deer and some like deer with the mouth of a tiger. In order to know them fully distrust at every step is the only way.

1.114.62. There is only one fault in men of forbearance and patience. There is no second fault. People take him to be powerless.

1.114.63. All enjoyments are transitory. If this alone is permitted (it would have been better) that the inclinations of the skilful be unaffected towards their friends.

1.114.64. O Saunaka! When the father passes away, the eldest brother takes his place. He should maintain everyone being a father unto them.

1.114.65. He shall be impartial to his younger brothers and give them the same pleasures as they received from their father.

1.114.66. The collection of a number of even insignificant things may be terrific in their effect. A number of blades of grass twisted into a rope may be strong enough to bind even an elephant.

1.114.67. The man who robs someone though he uses the money to make a charitable gift goes to hell. The fruit of the meritorious deed goes to the original owner of the wealth.

1.114.68. Families are faced with fall by the destruction of temple property, looting of brahmanas and showing them disrespect.

1.114.69. Sages have prescribed expiatory rites for the slayer of a brahmana, a drinker of wine, a thief and a breaker of vows; but there is no atonement for an ungrateful wretch.

1.114.70. Gods and manes do not accept oblations of the mean-minded fellow who keeps a woman of low caste as his concubine, who is a slave to his wife and who allows his wife to enjoy the company of a paramour in his own house.

1.114.71. An ungrateful fellow, a person of ignoble qualities, a person who nurses a grouse for a long time and a man of crooked nature - these four are the real candalas and the fifth is one born as such.

1.114.72. Even an insignificant enemy of evil intentions should not be neglected carelessly. Even a tiny spark of fire, if not put out immediately, consumes the entire world.

1.114.73. He who is quiet and tranquil in the boisterous age of blooming youth deserves the credit for being tranquil. Who does not become naturally quiet and tranquil when all his vital forces are spent out?

1.114.74. O foremost among brahmanas, riches, like the public thoroughfare are common to everyone. Do not be elated and haughty thinking "This is mine."

1.114.75. The body that is dependent on the vital secretions is dependent on the mind, too. If the mind is disarranged the vital secretions are destroyed. Hence, mind shall be preserved always. If the mind is in perfect order the vital secretions function properly.

Suta said:

1.115.1. One should keep oneself far away from a false wife, a deceitful friend, a tyrannous king, a disobedient son, a defiled daughter and a turbulent territory.

1.115.2. Alas, life in the Kali age is troublesome indeed. For, virtue has taken to renunciation, penance has started its long sojourn, truth is in exile in a foreign land, earth has become barren, people are fraudulent; brahmanas have become greedy; men are uxorious; women are fickle and wayward and base men are raised to the high position. Blessed indeed are they who are dead.

1.115.3. Blessed are they who do not witness the destruction of their family, ruin of their lands, the sexual dalliance of their wives with other men and the infamous indulgence of their sons in vice.

1.115.4. None can be delighted with their vicious sons; how can one feel a thrilling rapture in the company of a disloyal wife? There is no question of confiding in a deceptive friend and no peaceful life is possible in a trouble-infested land.

1.115.5. Food doled out by others, money robbed from others, defiling of another man's bed, sexual dalliance with another man's wife and a residence in another man's house will strip even Indra of his glory.

1.115.6. Sin spreads from a man to man slowly by conversation, mutual touch, frequent association, taking food together, sitting together, lying together and travelling together.

1.115.7. Women perish due to their beauty, penance due to fury, the way due to an undue length and pious brahmana by taking sudra's food.

1.115.8. By sitting together, sharing the same bed, taking food together and jumbling up the rows sin is transmitted from man to man like water from pot to pot.

1.115.9. There are many defects in fondling and many benefits in thrashing. Hence, a disciple and the son are to be thrashed, not fondled.

1.115.10. A long way is old age to men; water is old age to mountains; abstention from sexual intercourse is old age to women and sunlight is old age to clothes.

1.115.11. Base men desire strife, the middling desire reconciliation and the noble desire high honour. Verily, honour is prized by the great as the greatest asset.

1.115.12. Honour is at the root of wealth; if honour is secured of what avail is wealth; if one has lost honour and dignity, of what avail is wealth or longevity?

1.115.13. The base and the mean desire for riches; the middling desire for riches and honour and the excellent desire for honour. Verily, honour is an asset of the great.

1.115.14. In the forest, the lions do not bend their ears (in supplication); even when they are hungry they do not look to a share. Men of noble birth never stoop to meanness, even when they are deprived of their wealth.

1.115.15. The lion is neither anointed nor consecrated. The lordship of animals comes to it naturally as it has inherent valour.

1.115.16. No great task can be achieved by any of these: an erring merchant, a highly proud servant, an easy going mendicant, an impoverished debaucher, a helan of a girl bitter in speech.

1.115.17. Five incongruent things that we meet in the world are: the poverty of the benevolent, the opulence of the miser, disobedience in a son, compulsion to serve a wicked man and death of persons engaged in helping others.

1.115.18. There are five things which burn without fire: separation from wife; insult from kins; balance of debt yet to be discharged; service to a low and base master and desertion of friends in poverty.

1.115.19. Among the thousands worries that agitate the mind four are very severe - nay, they are the sharp edges of a sword: insult at the hands of a low born person, the starving wife, cold reception by the beloved and harassment from brothers.

1.115.20. The five uproot all miseries: an obedient son, a remunerative knowledge, freedom from sickness, the companionship of the good and a loving wife surrendering herself.

1.115.21. The deer, the elephant, the moth, the honeybee and the fish - these five are destroyed due to addiction to their five sense organs. [deer (ear) - listens to sweet music and thus caught by the hunter; elephant (touch) - caught through she-elephant; moth (eye) - attracted by the colour of the flame and burnt; honeybee (nose) - attracted by the fragrance of lotus and caught within; fish (taste) - nibbles at the bait and thus caught. Even one of these organs is destructive. How is it possible that man who uses all the five will escape destruction?]

1.115.22. Five brahmanas, though as learned as Brihaspati, are never honoured: the impatient, the harsh, the haughty, the ill-clad and the uninvited.

1.115.23. These five are clearly defined and decided even when a child is born: its span of life, its activities in later life, its character, learning and the time of death.

1.115.24. Help rendered to those who suffer when climbing a mountain, from imminent drowning in water, attack of cows and bulls, seizure by the wicked and a spiritual fall are very commendable.

1.115.25. These five are never stable or long-standing: the shadow of clouds, pleasant attitude of a wicked man, intimacy with another man's wife, youth and riches.

1.115.26. Life is unstable in the world, youth and riches are unstable, sons and wives are unstable, but virtue, fame and renown are permanent.

1.115.27. Even a life for a hundred years is too short. Half that period is taken up by nights. The remaining half is rendered fruitless by sickness, sorrow, old age and exertions.

1.115.28. It is said that man's span of life is a hundred years. It is too short. Half of that period is spent as nights. Half of the remaining half is spent in infancy and childhood or grieving over the separation or death of kinsmen or in service rendered to the king. The remaining period is as fickle as the waves in water. Of what avail is the sense of prestige and dignity?

1.115.29. Days and nights in the garb of old age traverse the earth. Death swallows the living beings like the serpent taking in air.

1.115.30. If our activities while walking or standing, waking or sleeping are not for the service of fellow beings, they are not different from bestial actions.

1.115.31. What is the difference between a beast and a beast in human form with an intellect devoid of discrimination between what is wholesome and what is not; who enters into endless arguments with people in regard to the Vedic expositions and who remains fully satisfied if he can fill his belly.

1.115.32. He who has not earned spotless reputation for valour, austerity, charity, learning or acquisition of wealth is but an excrement of his mother.

1.115.33. A good life even for a moment is considered a perfect life by those who know the same - if it is full of perfect knowledge, valour and fame and men are not disrespected. Even a crow lives a long life partaking the oblations.

1.115.34. Of what avail is that life devoid of wealth and honour? Of what use is that friend who hesitates whether he is to be friendly or not? O ye, adopt the rite of a lion, do not be grief-stricken. Even a crow lives a long life partaking the oblations.

1.115.35. If a man does not sympathize with and render help to himself, his preceptor, his servants, the poor public and his friends, of what purpose is his life? Even a crow lives for a long time partaking the oblations.

1.115.36. Days come and go to a man devoid of virtue, wealth and love. Although he may breathe, his life is like that of the bellows of the blacksmith.

1.115.37. Success is for him who has an independent means of subsistence and not for him who depends on others. Those who depend on others are no better than dead even though physically alive.

1.115.38. Contemptible wretches fulfil their own wants; a mouse's handful is just enough to fill it; a contemptible wretch though dissatisfied will be contented with something small.

1.115.39. These six are like bubbles: the shadow of clouds, fire made with dry grass, service to the base, water on the surface of the road, the love of a prostitute and the pleasant manners of the wicked.

1.115.40. The world cannot be pleased by a person who creates a caravan with words. Life is rooted in honour; if honour is slighted how can one derive pleasure?

1.115.41. A king is the support for the weak; crying constitutes the strength of a child; the strength of a fool lies in silence and that of a thief is falsehood.

1.115.42. As a man proceeds ahead with his study of sastras his intellect becomes sharper and perfect knowledge appeals to him.

1.115.43. As a person goes ahead devoting his mind and attention to the welfare of others, everyone becomes attached to him and he becomes popular.

1.115.44. A person perishes due to the three - greed, grave error and implicit confidence. Hence, these shall be avoided.

1.115.45. Danger is to be dreaded as long as it does not befall. The moment it occurs fear shall be eschewed.

1.115.46. Balance of debt undischarged, remnant of fire not put out and sickness partially cured increase steadily. Hence, these remnants shall be avoided.

1.115.47. Repay good action by goodness and violence by violence. I do not find any fault if a wicked man is met with wickedness.

1.115.48. A friend who speaks sweet words in our presence and spoils our work behind our back should be avoided. Avoid an enemy using foul means.

1.115.49. Even a good man perishes by his association with the wicked. Even a clear water is rendered muddy by its mixing up with dust.

1.115.50. He whose wealth is dedicated to the brahmana enjoys well. Hence, a brahmana shall be honoured by all means.

1.115.51. Food taken in after brahmanas have been fed is the real food; he is intelligent who commits no sin; that is friendship which manifests itself behind our back; that is the real sacred rite which is performed without ostentation.

1.115.52. That is no assembly where the aged are not present; they are not the aged who do not expound virtue; that is not virtue which is not backed by truth; that is no truth which is mixed with deception.

1.115.53. The best among men is the brahmana; the best among luminaries is the sun; the best among the organs is the head and the best among the sacred rites is the truth.

1.115.54. That is auspicious where mind is delighted; that is a real life which does not involve service and slavery; that is the real earning which is shared and enjoyed with one's own kith and kin and that is the real thunder which is made in the battle in the presence of the enemy.

1.115.55. She is the real woman who has no vanity; he is really happy who has shunned vain desires; he is the real friend in whom confidence can be placed and he is the real man who has controlled his organs of sense.

1.115.56. One should cast off honour and love where love is extinct; only that is praiseworthy the core of which is held in esteem.

1.115.57. No attempt should be made to trace the origin of rivers, agnihotra worshippers and the family of Bharata. Such an attempt is bound to fail.

1.115.58. Rivers end with the sea of salt water; sexual intercourse ends with the treachery of the woman; back-bitting ends with the news being made public and wealth comes to an end with misery.

1.115.59. The prosperity of a kingdom comes to an end with the curse of a brahmana; the spiritual power of a brahmana comes to an end with his sin; all decency in conduct of life comes to an end if residence is taken near cowsheds; the family is ruined if women rule.

1.115.60. All hoarded things end in wastage, rising in power comes to an end in downfall; all contacts and intimacies come to an end in separation and disintegration; the life comes to an end with death.

1.115.61. If one wishes the return of the guest he shall not be followed very far at the time of farewell. He can be followed upto a pond or well or a tree with plenty of shade and colourful leaves.

1.115.62. One shall not reside in a land where there is no leader or where there are many leaders or where the leadership is vested in a woman or in a child.

1.115.63. The father protects her in childhood, the husband in youth and the son in old age. A woman is not to be allowed to stay independently.

1.115.64. A barren woman shall be abandoned in the eighth year after marriage; a woman whose children die in infancy shall be abandoned in the ninth year; a woman who gives birth only to daughters shall be abandoned in the eleventh year and a woman who speaks unpleasant words shall be abandoned immediately.

1.115.65. Three persons beyond the pale of money stick to their lords. One who is not in want, one who is afraid of men and one who is afraid of servants.

1.115.66. An intelligent man must keep aloof from these: the exhausted horse, the elephant in its rut, cows in their first parturition and frogs outside water.

1.115.67. Those who are mad after money do not have friends or kinsmen; those who are lustful and lecherous know no fear or shame; those who are worried with anxious thoughts have no pleasure or sleep and those who are oppressed by hunger do not want even salt or warmth in the food.

1.115.68. How can these have peaceful sleep? The poor, the slave, the man fond of another man's wife and the wretch who wants to rob another man of his wealth.

1.115.69. Blissfully sleeps the man who has no debts to repay and who is free from sickness. He who is not yet married takes his food leisurely.

1.115.70. The height of a lotus is in proportion to the quantity of water in the pond; a servant becomes proud if his master is strong and influential.

1.115.71. The sun and Varuna (water) befriend the lotus when it stands firm in its place; they make it fade and putrefy if it is uprooted.

1.115.72. Those who had been friends of a man in high office become enemies when he steps down from the office. The sun delightfully causes the bloom of the lotus in water but when it is plucked and put on the ground the sun dries it up.

1.115.73. Things in their proper places and persons in their respective offices are honoured. Away from their original places neither hair nor the nails, neither the teeth nor men shine or receive consideration.

1.115.74. Manners and behaviour indicate parentage; manner of speech and accent indicate the native place; flutter up indicates affection and the physical build indicates the diet accustomed to.

1.115.75. A downpour in the ocean is unnecessary; feeding an over-fed and satiated man is superfluous; a charity made over to an affluent man is unnecessary and the meritorious actions of a base man are futile.

1.115.76. Even a person who is far off is as good as near if he has a place in the heart; if cast out of the heart a man close at hand is no better than one far off.

1.115.77. Contortions in the face, low sunk husky voice, perspiration all over the body and a frightened appearance - these are the signs usually seen at the time of death and in regard to a man out to beg.

1.115.78. A life of a worm in the person of the beggar or that of one blown by the wind over his head is better than the life of beggar himself.

1.115.79. The lord of the world, Vishnu himself, when he begged, suffered diminution of stature. Who is there superior to him who can be a suppliant and yet not suffer disrespect?

1.115.80. The parents by whom children are not educated are no better than enemies. The uneducated can never shine in an assembly of the learned like cranes amidst swans.

1.115.81. Learning gives beauty to the ugly; it is a well protected asset; it makes man a saint; it makes him popular; it is revered of the revered; it dispels the sorrow of kinsmen; it is a deity; even kings honour it; a man devoid of learning is no better than a beast.

1.115.82-83. Inside the house there are many things which can be taken away by others but not learning. Lord Vishnu expounded the essence of polity to Saunaka, as well as all sacred rites. Lord Siva heard this. Vyasa heard from Siva and we heard it from Vyasa.

1.123.11 "Fasting on Ekadasi days (eleventh day) in both halves of the month shall be observed. It removes sins and wards off hell - nay it enables one to attain Visnuloka and gives everything desired.

1.123.12-13 "For authentic fasts, the eleventh and twelfth phases of moon [tithi] should cover the full day from sunrise to sunset and the thirteenth phase should be at sunrise. The Parana [taking food] should be on the twelfth day. This vrata can be performed even when there is impurity due to birth and death. If the eleventh phase covers the whole day from sunrise to sunset Lord Hari is present [suddha Ekadasi]. If part of the day is covered by the tenth phase and part by the eleventh phase, demons permeate that [viddha Ekadasi]. Fasts shall not be undertaken then."

1.124.* Sivaratri

1.127.* Bhima Ekadasi (removes all great sins, no more birth)

1.128.6 "Wearing flower garlands, ornaments and gaudy clothes, smearing of scented unguents, washing the teeth and applying collyrium spoil the fast."

1.128.7 "...Constant drinking of water, chewing betel leaves, sleeping during the day, gambling and sexual intercourse spoil a vrata."

1.128.8-9 "In all vratas ten virtuous practices should be followed: forbearance, truthfulness, sympathy, charity, purity, control over the sense organs, worship of gods, sacrificial offering into the fire, contentment and non-stealing."

1.128.13 "During Malamasa or the intercalary month many auspicious rites are not performed [for example installation of Deities, sacrifices, vratas, tonsure ceremony, second initiation, marriages, crowning of kings, etc.]

1.128.14-17 ...Two phases of the moon on the same day are very auspicious such as: 2.+3., 3.+4., 4.+5., 6.+7., 8.+9. 11.+12. 14.+purnima, amavasya+1. The conjunction of tithis other than these is very frightful, destroying all previous merits.

1.141.5-8 The future line of kings in the Iksvaku race will be: ...Sakya, Suddhodana [father of Gautama Buddha], Bahula [Rahula],...

1.142.19-29 story of sinful brahmana-leper and whore-monger Kausika and his chaste wife who stopped the sun from rising. Demigods on Brahma's advice propitiated the chaste wife of Atri, Anasuya, who made her the sun rise and resuscitated Kausika, too.

1.221.23 "Even the very sight of good men purifies one. It is better than the holy places of pilgrimage. The benefit from a holy place is derived later but that from the contact of good men is immediately effective.

1.222.30 "Gruel, curd, milk, buttermilk and Krsara (mixture of jaggery, rice and gingelly seeds) can be taken even from a sudra. These together with pulse and honey can be taken from a low caste person.

1.222.49 "...During sports wearing of blue cloth is not forbidden. Nor it is forbidden as a bedsheet. An indigo dyed cloth should not be touched otherwise. Persons regularly using blue cloth will fall into hell.

1.222.63-66 "The constituents of Pancagavya are as follows: Milk taken from a gold colored cow, the cow dung of a white cow, urine of a copper colored cow, clarified butter of the milk of a blue cow and the curd of the milk of a black cow. Water added should be consecrated by Kusa grass. Eight Masas of cow's urine, four Masas of dung, twelve Masas of milk, ten Masas of curd and five Masas of ghee form the correct proportion. This Pancagavya removes all impurities.

1.223.27 "When Tamas alone is predominant, the people utter falsehoods always, are lethargic, somnolent, seeking violent means and overwhelmed by grief, delusion, terror and wretchedness, know that to be Kali age.

1.223.28 "Then people are lustful and harsh in speech. Country is overrun by thieves and robbers. Vedas are spoiled by Pasandas (misinterpreters).

1.223.28 "Kings will be begging of the subjects. People will be overpowered by their penises and bellies. [They will be carnal minded and gluttonous.] The religious students will be divested of their rites and impure. Mendicants will turn householders.

1.223.30 "Ascetics will begin to stay in villages. Depositors will be covetous of wealth. People will be short in stature but very gluttonous. Thieves and robbers will be considered holy.

1.223.31 "Servants will leave their masters in the lurch; the ascetics will cast off their religious rite; Sudras will begin to receive daksinas and Vaisyas will turn to austerities.

1.223.32-33 "All people will be disgruntled appearing like pisacas. They will be worshiping fire, deities and guests by unjustifiable means of feeding. When Kali age sets in, people will never offer water libations to their Pitrs. They will be devoted to womenfolk and for all appearance they will not be different from Sudras, O Saunaka.

1.223.34 "Women will give birth to many children. Their good fortune will decline. If they are rebuked they will simply scratch their heads and defy all orders.

1.223.35 "Overwhelmed by heretics people will cease to worship Visnu. But, O brahmanas, though the Kali age is full of defects, there is a great benefit in it.

1.223.36-37 "In Kali, by singing songs in praise of Lord Krsna one can free oneself from the great bondage. In Krta age people have to perform sacrifices and in the Treta they have to recite japas. In the Dvapara age, by serving the Lord they can attain salvation but in Kali that is possible only by singing songs in praise of the Lord. Hence, Hari is to be contemplated upon forever and worshiped, O Saunaka.

1.225.20-21 "If a person causes any impediment to a sacrifice, act of charity or performance of a marriage he shall be reborn as a worm. If a person takes food without first offering the same to deities, manes and brahmanas, he is reborn as a crow after undergoing the hardships of hell. A man insulting his elder brother is born again as a crane.

1.225.30 "A thief of Kalapa (peacock's plumes or a woman's girdle or any other ornament) is reborn as an eunuch. (...) If a person steals flowers he is born as a poor beggar. If a person steals lac-juice he is born again as a lame man.

1.225.33 "A stealer of knowledge (a person who does not pay for instructions received) undergoes hardships in many hells and is born again as a dumb man."

1.226.3-5 "The tree of Ignorance sought by the worldly minded for the sake of happiness and peace has the great basin round it in the form of riches and food grains. Its root is sin. The germinating sprout is the feeling of Egoism. The great main trunk is the feeling of 'My-ness'. Houses, fields, etc., are its branches. Wives, sons, etc. are the tender leaves. Those who imbibe the divine Brahmarasa free from dusts (of Rajoguna) and are thornless hew it down with the axe of learning and merge themselves in the [consciousness of the] Supreme God.

1.226.10 "That is called house where one stays; that is diet whereby one sustains oneself. Similarly, that is real knowledge which is conducive to salvation. Ignorance brings about adverse results.

1.226.16 "One shall conquer the various defects in the body by means of Pranayama. By Puraka (inhalation), somnolence is to be conquered. By Kumbhaka (retention of breath), one can conquer the shivering sensation. By Recaka (exhalation), one can conquer the augmentation or excess of heat in the body.

1.227.12 "A person who has mastered all the systems of Vedanta is better than thousands of Mantrayajins (those who perform sacrifice reciting mantras). A devotee of Lord Visnu is better than ten millions of such Vedantins.

1.227.13 "Ekantins (those who are single-minded in Lord's devotion) attain the greatest region even with their gross body. This unswerving faith in Visnu makes them identical with Him and He is fondly attached to them also.

1.227.23 "He who does not listen to the songs of praise of the divine qualities of the discus-bearing lord of lords (Visnu), is no better than a deaf man. He is to be banished from all religious activities.

1.227.33 "The worldly existence is a poisoned tree but two of its fruits are comparable even to nectar; one is devotion to Lord Kesava and the other is a chance association with His devotees.

1.228.12-20 glories of the holy name of Visnu

(13) "If a man calls out the name of the Lord even in his dream it destroys all his sins. Then what doubt is there that the sins will be removed when the name of Janardana is openly repeated?

(18) "What is obtained by means of contemplation in the Krta-yuga, reciting mantras in the Treta-yuga and worshiping in Dvapara is obtained in Kali-yuga by constantly remembering Lord Kesava.

1.229.6 "Neither one's own mother nor father nor other kinsmen can ever do unto one what Hrsikesa (Visnu) does when propitiated and worshiped faithfully.

1.230.5 "If a person performing ordinary rites of expiation begins to love the sin committed, no other atonement is possible except hearty remembrance of Hari. 1.230.11 "There is no greater object of meditation than Visnu. There is no greater penance than fasting (on Ekadasi day). Even more important than this is the constant thought of Vasudeva.

1.230.20 "Evil influence of the Kali age, wicked statements, vile utterances of heretics - none of these affect the mind of the person in whose mind Lord Kesava finds a place.

1.230.23 "If Govinda is fixed in the mind, the vile age of Kali is transformed into Krta. If Acyuta is not fixed in the mind even Krta-yuga is transformed into Kali age.

1.230.27 "If Govinda is stationed in the heart, people readily forgive [titiksava] angry persons and sympathize [karunika] with fools. They are joyous in the company of virtuous people.

1.230.31 "Why don't people seek refuge under the shade of the tree Vasudeva which accords no excessive chilliness or heat and which closes the doorway to hell?

1.230.35 "There is nothing so holy as meditation. Even the sin of taking food from the hands of a Svapaca (a Candala) does not taint him.

1.230.36 "The mind of a wretch is always attached to worldly objects. If one's mind were that much attached to Narayana how could he not be released from bondage?

1.230.46 "The king is the refuge of the nation, the parents that of the child, virtue is the refuge of all men and Lord Hari is the refuge of everyone.

1.230.49 "I consider a sudra, Nisada, a svapaca or a brahmana equal to one another if they are devotees of the Lord. None of these goes to hell.

1.230.50 "People praise a rich man with great respect wishing for some monetary profit. If they were to praise the creator of the world with the same zeal, is there any doubt that they would be released from bondage? (Who is not released from bondage?)

1.231.* Narasimha stuti by Garuda

1.235.1-4 "...The butter is actually present in the body of the cows. But it does not add to the strength of the cows. When the milk is taken out from the body and churned and the ghee is administered to the cows, it gives them additional strength. So also the all-pervading Visnu though present in the body too does not grant any special benefit to men without being propitiated. ..."

1.236.29-30 "So long a man has the sense of pleasure, he is called a possessor. But when [sense of] possession is lost, he remains his true self. The individual soul associated with Maya identifies himself with the body but when Maya withdraws he realizes his reality as Brahman.

1.236.31 "Just as a noble person is not affected by the loss of possession, similarly the withdrawal of Maya does not affect a person who has realized Self.

1.236.32 "Reality and illusion are both eternal. But Reality is an unassailable truth while illusion is a mirage.

1.237.8 essence of the Gita

(1.238.2) "Ahimsa (non-violence) is the virtue of refraining from inflicting injury upon living beings by actions, thoughts and speech at all times. It accords happiness.

(1.238.3) "Even an injury inflicted in accordance with Vedic injunctions is also Ahimsa.

(1.238.5) "Abjuring sexual intercourse by actions, thoughts and speech in all states, at all times and everywhere is called Brahmacarya (celibacy).

2.2.16 "O Garuda! Sesame is held sacred, for it is produced from My perspiration. The sesame can destroy the evil spirits.

2.2.48 "He who has never spoken falsehood, nor has any partiality in devotion but believes in God, obtains death peacefully.

2.2.49 "He who does not stray from Dharma, due to pleasure, wrath or envy but does what he says and is gentle obtains death peacefully.

2.2.50-51 "Those who preach ignorance pass through darkness. Those who are false witnesses, liars and deceitful obtain death unconsciously, just as those who abuse the Vedas.

2.2.65 "The sins of the people spread by talk, touch, breathing, going together, eating together, worshiping together, by teaching and sexual union.

2.2.68 "...He who takes meals uninvited becomes a crow...

2.2.70 "...and the performer of cruel deeds becomes a dwarf.

2.2.71-72 "...He who discards his wife becomes an animal to be killed by a hunter. ...He who eats meat becomes a leper. He who does not return the deposit becomes one-eyed. ...

2.2.73 "He who discards progeny and wife encounters ill-luck. He who eats sweets only becomes rheumatic. He who has sexual union with brahmana's wife becomes a jackal.

2.2.74 "...He who envies is born blind. He who steals a lamp becomes beggar.

2.2.75 "...He who speaks lies cannot speak properly. ...

2.2.77 "He who spoils a young girl becomes an eunuch. He who sells the Vedas becomes a leopard. He who performs a sacrifice but not in the prescribed manner becomes a pig.

2.2.79 "...A stealer ...of food suffers from dyspepsia.

2.2.80 "...He who gives stale food to a brahmana becomes hunch-backed.

2.2.81 "If he steals fruits, his progeny dies, O bird. If he eats alone without giving a morsel of it to anyone else, he becomes issueless.

2.2.82 "If he does not opt for Sannyasa he becomes an evil spirit in the desert. A stealer... of book is born blind.

2.2.85 "...He who hears neither Hari's tale, nor the praise of the good suffers from ear disease.

2.2.86-87 "...He who takes out a morsel from another's mouth becomes a blockhead. ... He who observes religion without sincerity suffers from skin disease.

2.2.88 "A treacherous fellow suffers from headache. He who is against Siva suffers from the disease of genital organ.

2.2.89 "And the women too who commit these sins suffer in similar way or they become wives of persons suffering in aforesaid manner.

2.3.74-75 "There is the hot Raurava above and the cold Tamasa below. "In this way, the hells are situated one below the other. The climax of misery is due to bad acts.

2.3.79 "...A day in hell is equal to one hundred years of the mortal.

2.3.83 "If born as a human being he becomes hunch-backed or a dwarf or a candala in wretched yonis.

2.3.84 "The sinner is born again and again and dies again and again till he has exhausted his sin and acquired virtue.

2.3.85 "Then some time he steps into the yoni of sudra or vaisya or ksatriya or brahmana or a deity.

2.3.87 "The virtuous obtain good yonis as directed by Yama. Immediately after the soul leaves the body, the Gandharvas come singing and dancing, adorned with garlands and anklebells.

2.3.88 "And then appear splendid aerial cars decorated with sweet smelling garlands (which take the virtuous souls to heaven).

2.3.89-90 "When their merits are exhausted, the virtuous souls fall from heaven and are born in the houses of kings or nobles of illustrious character, where they enjoy various pleasures. The men go up and down the ladder as stated before.

2.3.100-102 "It [body] is a shrub of sinews adorned with three trunks, combined with organs and having nine openings. Full of sensual pleasures, love, anger, desire and envy, possessing a highway robber in the form of greed, caught in the net of avarice and covered by the cloth of affection. It is bound by illusion and inhabited by greed.

2.4.15 "The salt is produced from the body of Visnu. When the soul of the dying person does not leave the body but lingers on, the salt should be gifted as it opens the door of the heaven.

2.4.38 "If he dies at a sacred place he attains moksa after dying there. ...

2.4.39 "If he undertakes a fast unto death he does not return to this world, O bird.

2.4.90-100 sati results (93 - she stays with her husband in heaven during the rule of 14 Indras -> kalpa) 2.4.176-177 "The five constellations from Dhanista to Revati are always inauspicious. Cremation should not be done on these days. It is tortuous to all creatures. Water offering should also be avoided, for it is inauspicious on these days.

2.4.178 "All rites should be performed after the Pancaka is over. If done otherwise, sons or close relatives are affected thereby.

2.4.179 "If one dies during these constellations and his cremation is performed during this period, his family suffers tremendously.

2.5.83 "The body [of deceased person dragged by Yamadutas] attains a form like air. Born out of pinda it assumes a shape different from the one born from the womb of the mother.

2.5.146 "There [in Yama's abode] are fourteen doorkeepers called Sravanas. They are pleased with the Sravana karma performed by his relatives or else they get angry.

2.5.147-149 "There very soon among Death, Time, etc. he sees Yama with red eyes, looking fierce and dark like a heap of collyrium, with fierce jaws and frowning fiercely, chosen as their lord by many ugly, fierce-faced hundreds of diseases, possessing an iron rod in his hand and also a noose. The creature goes either to good or to bad state as directed by him.

2.5.151 "Those who give umbrella, shoes and shelter see Yama as gentle-faced with ear-rings and a shining crest.

2.6.13 "All heinous sins like the brahmana slaughter, done knowingly or unknowingly, are purified by releasing a bull [Vrsotsarga or Vrsa-yajna, on 11th day after death] or by swimming in the ocean.

2.6.19-21 "A bull... of white color is Vipra, that of red color is Ksatra, that of yellow is Vaisya, and that of black is Sudra, just as the colors of four castes have been prescribed...

The story of five ghosts

Garuda said:

2.7.1 I have heard the story relating to the rite of Vrsotsarga. I wish to be enlightened further upon this topic, for Your knowledge is very great.

The Lord said:

2.7.2 Now I shall tell you a wonderful dialogue between Santapana and the ghosts on this very point.

2.7.3 There was a brahmana Santapana by name whose sins had been destroyed by penance. Knowing the futility of the world he left home and went to the forest.

2.7.4 Whenever Vaikhanasas, sages and Vratas saw him, they bowed to him with respect. Once he went on a pilgrimage.

2.7.5 Though he controlled the outer senses and acted in the prescribed way, he was still dragged by the organs and he slipped in his path.

2.7.6-7 Once in the morn while he was taking bath, he opened his eyes and looked around. He saw a forest full of shrubs, creepers, trees, barks, branches etc.

2.7.8-9 He saw talas, tamalas, priyalas, panasas, suparni, salas, sakhotas, syandanas, tindukas, sarjas, arjunas, amras, slesmatakas, bibhitakas, picumardas, cincimas, karkandhus and karamkaras.

2.7.10 All these and other trees were there among which the way could not be seen even by the birds, not to say of men.

2.7.11-12 There is that fierce forest, full of lions, tigers, hyenas, wild oxen, bears, buffaloes, elephants, deer, cobras, monkeys and other animals and also demons and goblins.

2.7.13 Santapana was terrified in his heart and could not decide where to go. Then thinking 'Come what may', he went further.

2.7.14 Hearing the singing of crickets and the hooting of owls, he moved forward about five steps.

2.7.15 There he saw a corpse tied to a banana tree and five fierce ghosts eating the same.

2.7.16-17 They were rejoicing over their feast by relishing the head bones, stomach attached to the back, fallen bones of the body, marrow, brain etc.

2.7.18 Seeing the ghosts who were loudly cracking the bones with their fierce jaws, he was awe-struck in his heart and stopped at once.

2.7.19 When they saw the brahmana in that lonely forest, they ran towards him saying 'I first, I first.'

2.7.20 Two of them caught hold of his two arms, two caught hold of his legs and the fifth one caught hold of his head.

2.7.21 Speaking loudly in their own language, 'I shall eat first, I shall eat first', they got busy in dragging him.

2.7.22 Then, all of sudden, they went up in the sky. From there they looked down how much flesh was left in the corpse.

2.7.23 They saw the corpse bitten by their jaws. Then they got down and caught hold of the corpse by the legs.

2.7.24-26 Thus taking hold of the body cut by themselves, they went up again in the sky. Then seeing himself being borne in the heaven, the brahmana praised the Lord in his mind. 'I bow down to Lord Visnu, the holder of discus, who is supreme consciousness, who kept away the crocodile by throwing his discus and released the elephant from the noose of crocodile. May He release me from the noose of my actions.

2.7.27 When the kings were captured by Magadha Bhima, the Lord got them released so that they might visit Bhargas's sacrifice. May He release me from the noose of my activities.'

2.7.28 He praised Me in his mind and being praised I got up all of a sudden and I went to the place where he was being carried by the ghosts.

2.7.29 Seeing him thus carried away by the ghosts I was surprised and without speaking anything I followed them a while.

2.7.30 Simply by the dint of My presence, O bird, that brahmana felt the pleasure of riding a palanquin.

2.7.31 Then in the way, I saw Manibhadra going to Meru and winking at him I took the king of Yaksas by My side.

2.7.32 I said to the lord of Yaksas to be active and destroy the ghosts and take away the corpse.

2.7.33 Being instructed thus he took the form of a ghost terrific even to those ghosts.

2.7.34 He stretched his arms besmeared with blood and appeared before the ghosts challenging them.

2.7.35 He struck two with his arms, two with his legs and one with his head and beat the ghosts with severe blows.

2.7.36 They held that corpse bound by hand and legs and began to fight.

2.7.37 They attacked the Yaksa lord with nails, feet and jaws.

2.7.38 But avoiding their attacks, the Yaksa lord snatched the corpse, as death takes away the breath.

2.7.39 When the corpse was snatched by Yaksa they ran towards him.

2.7.40 As soon as they reached the Yaksa moving in air, the Yaksa vanished immediately. In utter dejection they went to the brahmana.

2.7.41 As they were going to kill that brahmana on the mountain they remembered their previous birth. It happened by the glory of My position and by the nobility of the brahmana.

2.7.42 Then they encircled the brahmana and spoke to him reverentially.

2.7.43 'Please excuse us today.' They spoke like the echo of the mountain or the turmoil of the stormy sea.

2.7.44 Hearing their words he asked: 'Who are you? Is it simply an illusion, a dream, or a fancy?'

The chief ghost said:

2.7.45 'Hear, O brahmana, we shall tell you what you have asked us, O mahayogin. We are absolved of our sins by seeing you. My name is Paryusita. He is Sucimukha.

2.7.46 The third one is Sighra and the fourth one is Rodha and the fifth one is Lekhaka.'

The brahmana said:

2.7.47-48 'Why are these meaningless names borne out by you? Can they be derived from actions performed by you? O ghosts, now tell us the meaning of these names.'

The Lord said:

2.7.49 Being thus addressed by the brahmana, they replied separately.

Paryusita said:

2.7.50 'Once, in a month when Sraddha is performed for the manes, I invited a brahmana to my house. He arrived after I had eaten the part of food out of hunger.

2.7.51-52 Then I gave stale food to that brahmana when he came. On account of that sin, when I died I became a ghost and got the name Paryusita since I had given him the stale food.'

Sucimukha said:

2.7.53 'Once an aged woman of the brahmana caste went to the holy place Bhadravrata.

2.7.54-56 The old woman lived with her son aged five years. I being a ksatriya pretender stopped her in the wilderness, became a wayside robber and took her viaticum with clothes along with the dress of her son. I wrapped them around my head and wanted to leave.

2.7.57 I saw the little boy drinking water from a jar. In that wilderness, only that much water was there. I frightened the boy from drinking water and being thirsty myself began to drink from the jar.

2.7.58 The boy died of thirst and the mother who was struck with grief died too, by throwing herself into a dry well.

2.7.59 O brahmana, by that sin I became a ghost with mouth as small as the hole of a needle and body as huge as a mountain.

2.7.60 Although I get food I cannot eat. Although I burn with hunger my mouth is contracted.

2.7.61 Since in my mouth I have a hole equal to that of a needle I am known as Sucimukha.'

Sighra said:

2.7.62 'Formerly I was a rich vaisya and went to a distant country for business.

2.7.63 I was accompanied by a friend who was a partner in business. He was rich but greedy. Then due to bad luck we fared badly in business to the extent that even our capital was lost.

2.7.64 Then we started from there, traveling in a boat. Just as the sun reddened, we began to cross the river.

2.7.65 My friend was tired due to labor, slept in my lap. Then a cruel thought entered into my mind.

2.7.66 I threw my friend sleeping in my lap into the river. Nobody in the boat knew anything about my act.

2.7.67 I got hold of his belongings, jewels, rubies, gold, etc. and returned home.

2.7.68 I kept that all in my house and told his wife: 'My brother has been taken away by robbers in the way and robbed of his wealth.

2.7.69-71 I ran away and escaped. Do not weep.' She was overwhelmed with grief and burnt herself in the fire. Then seeing my path was without obstruction I returned home gladly. I enjoyed my friend's wealth to my heart's content. Since throwing my friend into the river I returned home quickly, I am called Sighraga.'

Rodhaka said:

2.7.72-73 'O brahmana, formerly I was a sudra. By the king's favor I owned a hundred villages. I had old parents and young brother.

2.7.74 Very soon my brother was estranged from me by a greedy person. I stopped giving him food and clothes. He suffered too much at my hands.

2.7.75-79 My parents gave him something secretly. Whatever they gave him I learned from my close confidants. Then I bound my parents with iron chain in a deserted temple. Being miserable they ended their life by drinking poison. The boy who was left by all alone wandered here and there and expired ultimately. By this sin, O brahmana, I have become ghost. Since I chained my parents I was called Rodhaka.'

Lekhaka said:

2.7.80 'Formerly I was a brahmana in Avanti. I was authorized to worship the deities of Bhadra king. There were many images with different names.

2.7.81 On their bodies they wore gold and jewels. While worshiping them an evil thought entered me.

2.7.82 Piercing their bodies with an iron rod I took out jewels from their eyes.

2.7.83 When the king saw the images in that state and their eyes without jewels, he became inflamed like fire.

2.7.84 Then he vowed, O brahmana, and said: 'Whosoever has stolen gold and jewels from these images, if known, will be killed.'

2.7.85-86 Knowing all that, one night, with a sword in hand, I entered the king's palace and struck him dead. I then took jewels and gold and went away at midnight.

2.7.87-88 Then in the deep forest, a tiger put on me his nails. Since I had incised the images with iron rod I was known as Lekhaka.'

The brahmana said:

2.7.89 'You have told us facts about your names; now let us know about your way of life as ghosts as well as your food.'

The ghosts said:

2.7.90-91 'We stay where people do not follow the Vedas, where there is no feeling of shame for falsehood, no faith in religion, no sense of discipline, no inclination for forgiveness, no patience and no knowledge.

2.7.92-95 We trouble the person who does not perform Sraddha or Tarpana. We eat his flesh and suck his blood. Now hear about our food which is most despicable in the world. Something of this you have already seen. We shall now tell you something unknown to you. Vomiting, waste, cough, urine and tears - these we eat and drink. Do not ask us further, O brahmana, we are ashamed to tell you about our food. We are ignorant, in dark, fools and puzzled. Suddenly have we remembered about our previous births.

2.7.96 We are neither humble, nor wild and we know nothing.'

The Lord said:

2.7.97 When the ghosts were speaking thus and the brahmana was hearing,

2.7.98-99 I showed My form, O Tarkshya. When that brahmana saw before him the Purusa of his heart, he praised Me with hymns and fell prostrate before Me. Those ghosts too trembled with eyes wide open in surprise.

2.7.100 Their voice muttered with affection, still they could not speak. 'Bow to You who release the cruel from rajas and the stupid from tamas.' This being uttered by the brahmana that mountain was adorned with six shining aerial cars moving at My will and attended by celestial beings.

2.7.101 By that vimana the brahmana went to My abode along with the five ghosts. The ghosts went to heaven by virtue of their association with the brahmana.

2.7.102 Living in heaven along with the ghosts that brahmana Santapana became My famous gana called Visvaksena. Thus I have told you everything, O bird. Whoever tells or hears this narrative, O bird, does not become a ghost.

2.8.28-29 "...the seven names of Yama, viz Yama, Dharma-raja, Mrtyu, Antaka, Vaivasvata, Kala, Sarva-pranahara...

2.9.56 "The king said: Tell me, o ghost, how one is released from ghosthood. The ghost said: The people can infer about the present of a ghost at home by signs and tormentations.

2.9.57 "I shall now tell you about tormentations given by the ghost to the people on earth. When the menses of the women go in vain and the family does not multiply,

2.9.58-62 "When men die young, it is tormentation by ghost. Sudden loss of profession and insult among the people, sudden setting of house on fire, permanent quarreling at home, false praise, suffering from consumption and foul diseases are due to tormentation by ghost. When the money invested in the customary way bears no fruit but it is destroyed, it is due to tormentation of ghost. When crops are ruined even after proper rains, when commerce is unsuccessful, when wife creates tension, it is due to tormentation by ghosts. By these tormentations, O king, people can know about the presence of ghost at home.

2.9.58-63 "If Vrsotsarga is done properly, one is released from ghosthood. Hence, O king, I pray you to perform Vrsotsarga in my favor. (2.9.50 - king is relative to all castes)

2.10.4 "O bird, hear, sraddha is gratifying to ghosts. There is no restriction on a person if he becomes a deity or a man or an animal according to the actions of his previous life.

2.10.5-7 "If he becomes a deity, the sraddha food turns into nectar; an article of enjoyment if he becomes a Gandharva; a grass if he becomes an animal; an air if he becomes a naga; fruit in case of bird; meat in case of demon; blood in case of a ghost; grain in case of a man and an article of enjoyment in case of a child.

2.10.12 "By their names and gotras the manes receive the offerings made by relatives. The mantras carry the same when they are recited with devotion and faith.

2.10.20 "Just as when the cow is lost in the herd of cattle, the calf searches for her and ultimately finds her, so the sraddha food searches the deceased person, though he is set on a journey (or has assumed a different form).

2.10.26 "Whosoever be the brahmana invited for the feast, they enter his body, eat and return to their abode.

2.10.27-28 "If the performer of sraddha (such as the son of the deceased) has invited a single brahmana for sraddha, the father stays in his stomach, the grandfather on his left side, the great-grandfather on the right and the consumer of pinda [Agnisvatta pitr in charge of the departed -> 14-15] at the back. During the period of sraddha Yama releases even the ghosts and the manes staying in hell who being hungry run to the world of mortals to receive the offering made by the relatives.

2.10.74 "How the soul gets a new body, hear from me. The soul without body is like a flame without fire. It is about a thumb in size. [angusthamatrah purusah - Ta. 10.38.1 (Taittiriya-aranyaka?), MBh...]

2.10.75-77 "After leaving the earthly body, the soul obtains an airy body. Like a caterpillar who lifts up the back feet only when the position of the front feet becomes firm, the soul leaves the previous body only when the airy body is available to enjoy.

2.10.81 "O bird, this type of body the deceased can have out of the pinda (rice-ball) offered to him.

2.10.82 "Whatever pinda the sons or kins give him during the ten days, the same unites the Vayuja body with the pindaja body.

2.10.83 "If the pindaja body be not there, the Vayuja body suffers. ...

2.10.86 "Just now, I have told you that it [the soul] obtains the airy body immediately. Now, hear about the body it obtains belatedly. [73 - ...Body is obtained both immediate and late.]

2.10.87 "After some time [2.30.30 - 1 year], the jiva when reaches Yamaloka, obtains the pindaja body.

2.10.88-89 "As directed by Citragupta, he suffers in hell. Having suffered tortures there, he is born in low species. ...

2.12.13 "One is guilty of self-deception who does not strive to gain either heaven or salvation after being born as a man whereby he could gain either.

2.12.17 "A man depending upon his own self is sure to be happy. The qualities of sound, touch, color, taste, and smell make one dependent on the objects of sense and hence one is sure to be unhappy.

2.12.18 "The deer, elephant, the moth, the honey bee and the fish - these five are destroyed due to addiction to their five sense organs. [deer - ear (listens to sweet music and gets caught by the hunter), elephant - touch (caught through she-elephants), moth - eyes (it is attracted by the flame and burnt), honey bee - smell (attracted by fragrance of lotus and caught within), fish - taste (nibbles at the bait and gets caught) Even one of the sense organs is destructive. How can man - using all five - escape it?]

2.12.19 "In infancy one is extremely obsessed with one's parents; in youth with one's wife; later in life one becomes obsessed with one's sons and grandsons. Never is one obsessed with the atman.

2.12.20 "It is easy for one bound with iron fetters to wooden pegs to get oneself released. But one bound with the nooses of children and wives is never released.

2.12.22 "Man is born alone; man dies alone; he enjoys his merits by himself; he reaps the bitter fruits of his sins by himself.

2.13.8 "If Vrsotsarga is not carried out on the eleventh day after death, the ghosthood of the dead becomes eternal even if hundreds of sraddhas are performed in his favor.

2.13.13 "If a person has performed the rite of Vrsotsarga and has lived a celibate life, he goes to Brahmaloka, even if he dies an unnatural death.

2.13.22 "One shall perform sacred rites as long as the body is hale and hearty. Falling sick, one may not feel enthusiastic to do anything even if prompted by others.

2.13.25 "...It is foolishness to begin to dig a well when the house has caught fire.

2.15.14-15 "...When the organs lose their functioning power, consciousness is benumbed and the messengers of Yama are at hand, the breath leaves the body. The departed soul attains divine vision and can see the universe at a glance.

2.15.16-17 "He observes the dreadful form of Yama even when he is on the verge of death. He sees Yama's servants beating the wicked with the cane. He sees the attendants of Visnu cheering the good.

2.15.25-26 "O Garuda, body is liable to destruction in an instant. How can a man boast of it? "The purpose of wealth is charity, that of speech truth, that of life is fame and spirituality, that of body benevolence. In this way, one can gain something substantial out of the things unsubstantial.

2.15.67 "Within three days and nights the soul assumes a new body. On the tenth day the embodies soul longs for food.

2.15.74 "On the eleventh day and the twelfth, the soul of dead eats to his fill.

2.15.76 "On the thirteenth day, the soul of the dead is taken to the High Way. Now he assumes a body of the pinda and feels hungry by day and night.

2.16.49-52 "There [in Yama's city, Yamya] abide honorable and respectable Sravanas, the sons of Brahma who know and report to Citragupta whatever good or bad actions are performed by the mortals. "The Sravanas are eight in number [2.17.13-12(?)]. They move about in heaven, hell and on earth. They can see and hear from afar. Their women are known as Sravanis who are identifiable by their individual names. They are the presiding deities of mortals and have full knowledge of their activities.

2.18.34 "Those who have passed several years in the dreadful hell and have no descendants (to offer gifts) in their favor become messengers of Yama.

2.18.34 "Yama sends them on errand and they share with the dead the food and drink which their relatives offer them from time to time.

2.18.39 "Here [in Yamaloka] he [dead man] gives up his dreadful body, of the measure of arm, which he derived within ten days from the ten pindas gifted to him by his descendants. ...

2.18.40 "He gives up his previous body for the one derived from his actions. He receives an airy body of the size of a thumb and reaches the sword-edged hell.

2.20.15 "The ghost torments his family through the enemy. While he was in human body he was affectionate to his people, now that he is dead he becomes hostile to them.

2.20.17 "He who does not observe rites, has no faith in the sanctity of the Vedas, hates righteous acts and indulges in falsehood, is tormented by the pretas. By doing unrighteous acts, O Garuda, he becomes a preta in this Kali age.

2.20.18 "From the beginning of Satya-yuga to the end of Dvapara, nobody became a preta and nobody suffered from preta.

2.20.43 "O Garuda, a person becomes a ghost and undergoes sufferings if he dies an accidental death or if his body is not cremated properly.

2.21.5-7 "He (the ghost-afflicted man) shall explain the signs and symptoms to the astrologer. If he dreams of a holy plant like a campaka or of a mango tree laden with fruits or if he dreams of a brahmana or of a bull or of himself in a place of pilgrimage or of the death of a kinsman and if in dream he takes this as truth, this is all due to pretadosa. Mysterious events often occur if the ghost has bad intentions.

2.21.8 "If a person desires to visit a holy place and his heart is set upon it, but somehow there is a break in carrying out his desire, that is due to the bad intention of a ghost.

2.21.21-22 "Brahmanas say only what is true. They never tell lies. Fully believing in what the brahmanas say the person (advised and warned of ghosts) shall devoutly pray to the manes, perform purascarana rite [a rite preparatory to another rite] and offer oblations to Visnu.

2.21.23 "By means of japas, homas and danas he should sanctify his body. O lord of birds, if this is performed, all obstacles and hindrances are dispelled.

2.21.24 "He is never afflicted by bhutas and pisacas or other sort of ghosts. By performing the rites of oblations to Narayana with the ancestors in view he shall be freed of all sorts of affliction. This is my sworn statement.

On attaining ghosthood

Garuda said:

2.22.1-2 How do these ghosts come into being? How are they redeemed from pretahood? What are their features? What is their diet, o Lord? How are the ghosts propitiated? O Lord of deities, where do they stay? Please favor me, o Lord, with an answer to these queries.

The Lord said:

2.22.3 It is the men of sinful actions actuated by their previous misdeeds who become ghosts after death. Please listen to me, I shall tell you in detail.

2.22.4-5 He who desecrates well, tanks, lakes, parks, temples, water sheds, groves of trees, almshouses etc. and misdirects anyone in religious rites for monetary gain is a sinner. After death he becomes a ghost and remains as such till the final deluge.

2.22.6 Out of greed if people upset the boundaries of villages and destroy pasture lands, tanks, parks, underground drainage, etc. they become ghosts.

2.22.7 Sinful persons meet with death at the hands of candalas, infuriated brahmanas, serpents, animals with curved teeth or in watery graves or struck by lightning.

2.22.8-13 Those who meet with foul death such as committing suicide by hanging from a tree, by poison or weapon, those who die of cholera, those who are burnt to death alive, those who die of foul and loathsome diseases or at the hands of robbers, those who are not cremated duly after death, those who do not follow sacred rites and conduct, those who do not perform Vrsotsarga and monthly pinda rites, those who allow sudras to bring sacrificial grass, twigs and other articles of homa, those who fall from mountains and die, those who die when walls collapse, those who are defiled by women in their menses, those who die in the firmament and those who are forgetful of Visnu, those who continue to associate with persons defiled due to births or death, those who die of dog-biting or meet with death in a foul manner, become ghosts and roam over the earth.

2.22.14 One who discards one's mother, sister, wife, daughter or daughter-in-law without seeing any fault in them, obtains ghosthood surely.

2.22.15 One who deceives his own brother, kills a brahmana or a cow, drinks liquor, defiles the preceptor's bed, steals gold and silk garment, becomes ghosts, o bird.

2.22.16 One who usurps a deposit, deceives a friend, enjoys other man's wife, kills other's faith, is cruel, definitely becomes a ghost.

2.22.17 One who discards the family customs, takes to other customs, is without knowledge and good character, definitely becomes a ghost.

2.22.18 To illustrate this there is an anecdote narrated by Bhisma to Yudhisthira. O you of good rites, I shall narrate the same to you, on hearing which you may feel pleasure.

Yudhisthira said:

2.22.19 O grandfather, please tell me what those evil deeds are as a result of which one becomes a ghost and what are the means of redemption from the same on hearing which I shall not be deluded thus further.

Bhisma said:

2.22.20 I shall tell you entirely what those causes are whereby one turns a ghost and how he is set free after falling into dismal hell impassable even to gods.

2.22.21 I shall tell all those things on hearing which a person is set free from ghosthood.

2.22.22 O dear, there was a brahmana of rigorous sacred rites named Santaptaka. For practicing penance, he went to a forest.

2.22.23 He was a man of kind, compassionate nature. He used to perform homas and yogic practices as well as great sacrifices. He used to spent time usefully engaged.

2.22.24 He strictly followed the instructions of his preceptor. He was soft-hearted, truthful and pure. He was afraid of the other world.

2.22.25 He strictly followed the instruction of his preceptor. He was delighted in serving guests. He observed yogic practices. He was free from dvandvas (like happiness and misery, heat and cold and such opposite pairs.)

2.22.26 Practicing yoga incessantly to conquer mundane existence, he subjugated the sense organs. Following the path of good conduct he eagerly desired salvation.

2.22.27 He spent years in the secluded forest. Then the idea of visiting holy centres entered his mind.

2.22.28 He thought within himself "I shall keep immersed my body in the waters of a holy river till I die." Accordingly he hastened to a holy centre where he took bath at sunrise. He performed the rites of japa and namaskara (obeisance) and started on journey.

2.22.29-31 One day, this brahmana of great penance lost his way and reached a forest full of thorny shrubs, secluded and devoid of big trees. While he was hurrying up, he saw five terrible ghosts. On seeing these five awful ghosts of deformed features he was terrified and he closed his eyes in sheer fright. Then, he cast off his fear and became bold enough to ask in sweet words "O sires, how is it that you are so deformed?"

2.22.32 What was the sin committed by you? Wherefore have you attained this deformity? Where are you proceeding in company?

The lord of the ghosts said:

2.22.33 O excellent brahmana, our ghosthood is the outcome of our own misdeeds. We had been engaged in harassing others. Hence, we became victims of foul death.

2.22.34 In this state of our ghosthood we are oppressed with hunger and thirst. We are unable to speak. We have lost our mental equilibrium. We have lost consciousness too.

2.22.35 We are Pisacas born of our own misdeeds. We do not know the difference between one quarter and another. We are extremely distressed. We do not know where to go.

2.22.36 We have neither fathers nor mothers. This ghosthood is due to our own misdeeds. We are extremely dejected and sorrowful because the attack is all too sudden.

2.22.37 O brahmana, we are delighted on seeing you. We feel refreshed. Please wait a little. I shall narrate everything from the very beginning.

2.22.38 My name is Paryusita. This ghost is known as Sucimukha. The other one is Sighraga and the others are Rohaka and Lekhaka. These are our names and we are ghosts.

The brahmana said:

2.22.39 How can ghosts, the outcome of evil actions, have names? You may have some purpose in view in having these names. Please tell me.

The pretaraja (king of ghosts) said:

2.22.40 O excellent brahmana, while I myself took all sweet things I left stale things for brahmanas to eat.

2.22.41 While I was on earth as a man, I showed the hungry brahmanas the exit door. Hence, my name is Paryusita.

2.22.42 O excellent brahmana, whenever a brahmana begged him for food, out of hunger, this ghost used to run away, hence his name is Sighraga.

2.22.43 This other one irritated many brahmanas with sharp tongue when they came to him for food, hence he is called Sucimukha.

2.22.44 In his life on earth, this ghost ate sumptuously in isolation the foodstuffs offered to gods and manes in the absence of brahmanas. Hence, he is known as Rohaka.

2.22.45 Whenever a needy person requested him for something, this ghost pretended to be silent and went on scratching on the ground. As a result of this he is known as Lekhaka.

2.22.46-47 Thus acquiring our ghosthood and names from our misdeeds we have got ourselves deformed too. This Lekhaka is goat-mouthed; Rohaka is mountain-faced; Sighraga is cow-faced; Sucimukha is needle-mouthed; I, Paryusita, am crane-necked.

2.22.48-49 Taking this illusory form, we wander over this wide region. We suffer from terrible distress. O brahmana, you can judge from our deformed faces with protruding lips and twisted shape. Our teeth are long, our bodies huge, our faces crooked, due to our misdeeds. Thus I have told you how we turned ghosts.

2.22.50 We have become somewhat wise on seeing you. If you wish to hear more, you can ask us further whatever you like to know.

The brahmana said:

2.22.51 The creatures on this earth subsist on food. I wish to know precisely what you all eat for your subsistence.

The ghost said:

2.22.52 If you are inclined to hear what we eat, o noble sir, listen attentively.

The brahmana said:

2.22.53 O king of ghosts, please tell me what you eat. Thus requested the ghosts began to explain their diet respectively.

The ghosts said:

2.22.54 O brahmana, our diet is extremely loathsome, despised by all living beings. On hearing it from us you are sure to hate us. It is so despicable.

2.22.55 Mucous secretions, feces and urine together with other exudations, filth as well as leavings of food constitute our diet.

2.22.56 We eat, drink and revel in the house where people do not pay attention to cleanliness and where they scatter litter carelessly. We haunt unclean beings as well.

2.22.57 We reside and enjoy in the house where there is no purity, where people do not observe truthfulness and restraint and where outcastes, robbers, etc. join together and take meals.

2.22.58 We take delight in haunting the house where no mantras are recited, where no oblation is offered, where no homa is performed and where people do not read the Vedas regularly nor perform religious rites.

2.22.59 We hover round the house where gods are not honored, where the householder is a vile wretch without shame and decency and where the poor husband is controlled by his sturdy wife.

2.22.60 We enjoy gaiety in the house where covetousness, fury, somnolence, sorrow, fear, haughtiness, lethargy, quarrels and deception reign supreme.

2.22.61 We lick up the urine mixed with semen from the vaginal passage of the widow having illicit intercourse with her paramour.

2.22.62 Dear friend, I am ashamed to tell you about the food we take. O pious brahmana, we lick up the menstrual blood from the generative organ of a woman.

2.22.63 O noble brahmana, preferring penance to riches and engaged in performing the sacred rites, I ask you out of frustration. Please tell me the means of warding off ghosthood. It is better to die a hundred times than turn a ghost.

The brahmana said:

2.22.64 A person who is assiduously engaged in fasts such as Krcchra and Candrayana [Ms 11.211-217] is never born as a ghost.

2.22.65 He who observes fast, keeps awake at night and is purified by meritorious deeds is never born as a ghost.

2.22.66 He who performs Asvamedha and other sacrifices, makes liberal gifts and builds monasteries, parks, drinking water-sheds and cowpens is never born as a ghost.

2.22.67 He who helps brahmanas to give their virgin daughters in marriage, according to his capacity, he who enables students to study, and he who accords shelter and refuge to the needy is never born as a ghost.

2.22.68 If man takes food offered by a fallen man and dies with that food undigested in his stomach, he is supposed to have courted a foul death and hence, he becomes a ghost.

2.22.69 If a priest officiates at the sacrifice of an unworthy person and neglects that of worthy sacrificer, if a man lives in the company of despicable people he becomes a ghost.

2.22.70 He who associates with drunkards or indulges in intercourse with a woman addicted to wine or eats meat unconsciously becomes a ghost.

2.22.71 He who misappropriates a brahmana's wealth, or he property of a temple or that of his preceptor and he who takes money from his son-in-law before giving his daughter in marriage becomes a ghost.

2.22.72 He who forsakes his innocent and guiltless mother, sister, wife, daughter or daughter-in-law becomes a ghost.

2.22.73 All these are sure to be born as ghosts - a man misappropriating a trust property, a man treacherous to his friend, a man fond of another man's wife, a faithless man and a deceptive wretch.

2.22.74 A man hating his brother, a murderer of a brahmana, a slayer of the cow, a wine addict, a defiler of the preceptor's bed, one who casts off customary rites, or one who is fond of telling lies, a stealer of gold or one who takes possession of plots of land illegally - all these are born as ghosts.

Bhisma said:

2.22.75 When the brahmana spoke thus, the beating of drums was heard in the sky. The gods showered flowers over the brahmana.

2.22.76 Five celestial chariots arrived there and took the ghosts away, the ghosts having taken leave of the saintly brahmana.

2.22.77 The ghosts were relieved of their sins after the pious speech of that brahmana. They all achieved the highest region (Vaikuntha).

2.22.78 On hearing this anecdote, the lord of birds quaked like the asvattha tree. He asked the Lord again, for the benefit of human beings.

On ghosthood

Garuda said:

2.23.1 What do the ghosts do in their ghosthood? When do they speak sometime? Please tell me, o Lord of gods!

The Lord said:

2.23.2 I shall tell you about their form, signs and dreams. Being oppressed by hunger and thirst they enter their former home.

2.23.3 Though possessed of airy forms, they give signs to their sleeping descendants, o bird.

2.23.4 They visit the place where their sons, wives and relatives sleep.

2.23.5 If a person dreams of a horse, an elephant, a bull, or a man with deformed face, if a person awakened from sleep sees himself in the opposite side of the bed, this is all due to the workings of a ghost.

2.23.6 If a man is fastened with chains in dream, if his dead ancestors demand food in dream,

2.23.7 If one snatches the food from him while he is eating in dream, if thirsty, one drinks water,

2.23.8 If in dream one rides a bull or moves with bulls or if one springs up in the sky or goes to a holy place hungry,

2.23.9-10 If one speaks aloud among cows, bulls, brahmanas, horses, elephants, deities, ghosts and demons - this is due to the working of a ghosts. Many are the signs of ghosts in dream, o bird. It is due to a ghost if one sees his wife, relative, son or husband as dead.

2.23.11 He who begs in dream oppressed by hunger or thirst should give pindas to the manes to ward off coming distress.

2.23.12 If one sees in dream his son, cattle, father, brother, wife, getting out of house, it is due to the working of a ghost.

2.23.13 These signs, o bird, call for atonement. One should bathe at home or at a holy place, give water oblation to a deity at the root of a fig tree.

2.23.14 Or give black corn, perform worship, offer gifts to a Vedic scholar and do homa as far as his means can allow.

2.23.15 If, in faith, one reads or hears this discourse, the ghosts disappear immediately from his vicinity.

2.24.18 "If one neglects both, dana, japa, homa, study of the Vedas or the worship of gods on a certain day that is a day wasted in the life of that man.

2.24.20 "The food cooked in the morning becomes stale in the evening. How can one expect permanence in the body sustained by such a food?

2.24.31 "When the actions of previous births ripen, man succumbs to death. From the time of conception to the fifth year even a slight sin may cause death.

2.24.32-33 "It is due to major sins that man dies after the fifth year. Usually, he completes the allotted span of life, dies and is born again. It is a result of the influence of sacred rites and gifts that he is able to complete his life's term.

2.25.25 "Thereby a son yields all pleasure to his parents. If dead early, he is born again in the family.

2.25.45 "A single son, free from the sins of Kali, is honored by the Siddhas and fanned by celestial damsels with divine chowries. He will be able to lift hundreds of manes, kinsmen, sons, grandsons and great-grandsons fallen into the abysmal depths of Inferno.

2.26.52 "If she [a woman] is separated from her husband and dies elsewhere she cannot attain the region of her husband till the day of final deluge [at the end of kalpa].

2.26.56-57 "If a woman who is married duly according to religious rites does not associate herself with her husband she will remain miserable for seven births subsequent to this. She will be evil-conducted and repulsive in speech. The woman of such despicable character who goes after another man, leaving her own husband shall be born as lizard or an alligator or a leech.

2.26.59 "A woman who commits sins against her husband alive or dead shall never get a husband in her re-birth. She will be the most unfortunate creature among women.

2.27.36 "O excellent king, those who steal or misappropriate a brahmana's wealth, temple property, woman's wealth or children's money are turned into ghosts.

2.27.37 "Those who indulge in sexual intercourse with saintly women or women of their own gotra or forbidden women or those who steal conchshells become major ghosts.

2.27.38-40 "Those who steal corals and diamonds, those who steal garments, those who steal gold, those who do not face enemies but turn away from battlefield and are killed, those who are ungrateful, those who are atheists, harsh, roguish and foolhardy, those who are devoid of five major sacrifices [panca maha-yajna] - become ghosts, o great king.

2.27.56 "This gift is called pretaghata which removes all evils. It is rare in the world and it destroys the evil state.

2.27.57 "Get a jar of heated gold manufactured by the smith. Fill it with milk or butter. With full devotion to Brahma, Visnu, Siva and the guardians of quarters [dik-palas] give the same to a brahmana. What avails hundreds of other gifts is compared to this.

2.27.60 "This gift is best of all. It removes even the major sins. It should be made in good faith, o king, to ward off ghosthood.

2.29.7 "The ground should be smeared with cow dung. Gingelly seeds and darbha grass should be strewn. The sick man put thereon will be able to burn off his sins.

2.29.10 "Evil spirits, demons, ghosts and terrible giants of low strata attack the sick man lying on the ground which is not smeared with cow dung by people.

2.29.15 "Gingelly seeds originate from My sweat, O Garuda, and thence are holy. Asuras, Danavas and Daityas flee from the place where gingelly seeds are kept.

2.29.16 "Gingelly seeds, white, black or brown, destroy sins committed by the body.

2.29.18-19 "Darbha grass is born of My hair and the gingelly seeds originate from My sweat. Not otherwise. The holy sacred thread is an essential item in all religious rites. The whole universe rests on it. Brahma and other deities are propitiated when the sacred thread is worn in the normal way. When it is worn over the right shoulder and under the left arm, the manes are propitiated.

2.29.23 "O bird, there are five types of boats [panca pravahana] to succor saintly men who may otherwise get drowned in the ocean of worldly existence - tulasi, brahmanas, cows, Visnu and the Ekadasi day.

2.29.29 "If the ground is smeared with cow dung and the death bed is made of kusa grass, whatever charity is given therefrom dispels all sins.

2.29.30 "Salt is on par with everything divine. It yields everything the person wishes for himself. No dish tastes sweet without salt.

2.29.31 "Hence, salt is favorite with the manes. The gift of salt leads them to heaven. It is said that salt is originated from Visnu's body.

2.30.5 "He who makes a gift of gingelly seeds, cow, plot of land or gold to a worthy brahmana will have his sins, accruing in different births, instantaneously quelled.

2.30.13 "Gingelly seeds, iron, gold, cotton, salt, seven grains, plot of land and cow - each constitutes a holy gift. [cf. 2.40.61]

2.30.25 "Dagger, iron club, baton, sword and lancet are the weapons in the hands of Yama to curb the sinners.

2.30.28 "The different emissaries of Yama - Churinas, Sandas, Markas, Udumbaras - are delighted by gifts of iron.

2.30.30 "Listen to the course of a man dying on the earth. The first stage is that of Ativaha (subtle body in transit); then that of ghost; then at the end of a year that of pitr.

2.30.37 "The names of the ten incarnations of the Lord [dasavatara], viz - Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narasimha, Srirama, Parasurama, Krsna, Balarama, Buddha and Kalki shall be remembered always.

2.30.47 "It is I [the Lord] who induce thoughts of virtue. It is Yama who induces thoughts of evil. (...)

2.32.9 "A woman in her menses is an outcaste on the first day, a slayer of brahmana on the second day and a washerwoman on the third. She becomes pure on the fourth day.

2.32.10 "After seven days, she becomes pure enough to take part in the worship of manes and deities. If conception takes place within seven days the progeny is impure.

2.32.15-16 "Conception usually takes place within eight days. On the fifth day the woman is given sweet dishes which is a good tonic for the embryo. Astringent and pungent things should not be taken at all. The woman's parts can be likened to a medicinal vessel. The seed of a man can is like an ambrosial food.

2.32.17 "A man depositing his semen in her vagina is actually sowing a seed. For the proper growth of the child she should avoid excessive sunshine. Cooling articles should be resorted to.

2.32.18-19 "On the night auspiciously selected for the intercourse, the pair should chew betel leaves and apply scents and sandal paste over their bodies. The ideas and thoughts that hover in the mind of the man [12 - the parents] at the time of intercourse have a lasting influence in molding the character of the conceived child.

2.32.22 "If the blood is predominant at intercourse, the child will be a girl. If the semen is predominant, the child will be a boy.

2.32.43-44 "There are ten principal nerves [nadi] in the body: Ida, Pingala, Susumna, Gandhari, Gajajihva, Pusa, Yasa, Alambusa, Kuhu and Sankhini.

2.32.100 "In this shadowy world of unsurmountable difficulties, the following six incite devotion: meditation on Visnu, observance of vow on the eleventh day of the month (Ekadasi), listening to the Bhagavadgita, worship of the sacred plant Tulasi, brahmanas and cows.

2.32.101 "By muttering the mantra Om namo bhagavate Vasudevaya, one is completely absorbed in Brahman. Even by worshiping Me alone, one can reach My region direct.

2.34.2 "In the Krta age they extol penance; in the Treta they extol knowledge, in Dvapara sacrifices and charities and in the Kali only gifts are extolled.

2.35.17-18 "If a member of the brahmana caste dies on days when the moon is in conjunction with any of the stars - Dhanistha and the four succeeding one ending with Revati - it is very inauspicious. Cremation and water libations is not performed during those days [so-called Pancaka]. 19 - no job should be done during it.

2.35.20 "Great distress will befall sons and clansmen of the dead who dies on any of these days. Loss in the house is also inevitable.

2.35.41-43 "The hands and feet of the dead together with the covering cloth should be tied to the bamboo bier. If this is not done, there is risk of an attack by the pisacas. If the dead body is taken out during the night, there is a fear from spirits roaming in the sky. The dead body should not be left unattended. By touching it mishaps may occur.

2.35.45 "When there is a dead body in the village the following is avoided: chewing the betel, chewing the toothbrush twig, taking food, sexual intercourse and offering of pindas.

2.36.5 "If anyone observes the rite of fasting and dies, he will cast off his human form and become equal in lustre to Me.

2.36.8 "If a person suffering from an incurable disease such as plague, etc. observes fast and dies, he has no rebirth. He rejoices in heaven like a deity.

2.36.11 "If gifts are made in favor of the dead, his major and minor sins are washed away. On death, he attains immortality on par with sages.

2.36.15 "If a person dies at home after observing the fast, he alone will sojourn in heaven leaving the members of his family.

2.36.16 "If a person casts off food and water and drinks only the water from My feet [caranamrta], he is not reborn on the earth.

2.36.31 "What is given to father will be requited a hundredfold; to mother a thousandfold; to a sister a hundred thousandfold and to brother manifold.

2.36.33 "Wealth is acquired with strain and stress. It is naturally unsteady. The only solution is in being gifted to others. Otherwise there awaits only disaster.

2.38.4 "After obtaining human form in any of the thirteen castes in Bharata[-varsa], if a man dies in a holy centre [tirtha], he is never born again.

2.38.5 "The seven cities of Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya [Mayapura], Kanci, Avantika [Jagannatha Puri], Kasi and Dvaravati [Dvaraka] confer salvation.

2.38.7 "He has already tucked his clothes for his journey to his goal of salvation, if he pronounces the two letters "Hari" even for once.

2.38.9 "Undoubtedly one attains salvation if one dies near a Salagrama stone which is powerful for annihilating all sins and defects.

2.38.10 "There is no doubt in this that salvation is ever present wherever Salagrama stone or the stone of Dvaravati [Dvaraka-sila] or both are present.

2.38.11 "O bird, by growing, nurturing, sprinkling, saluting and extolling the Tulasi plant man's sin accumulated in various births is wiped off.

2.38.16 "He who lays down his life for the sake of his preceptor, a brahmana, a woman or a child attains salvations.

2.38.21-22 "A man dying in Hariksetra, Kuruksetra, Bhrguksetra, Prabhasa, Sri Saila, Arbuda, Puskara or Bhutesvara attains heavenly abode for the period of a day of Brahma and thereafter falls to earth.

2.38.25-26 "By giving gifts a man shall reap the fruits thereof. There is no doubt in this that he who resuscitates and repairs tanks, wells, lakes, parks and temples in ruins reaps twice the merit derived by the original builder.

2.40.4-12 "There are people who are dead by fasts [hunger?], killed by fanged animals, dead by strangulation, who are slayers of preceptors, killed by wolves, who die of arson or imprecations of brahmanas, who die of cholera, who commit suicide, who fall from a peak and die, who hang themselves to death, who are drowned in tank, river or ocean - listen to their plight. These go to hell. Those who are killed by the mlecchas and other infidels, who are defiled by dogs, jackals, etc., who are not cremated, who are full of germs, who die of leaping or great ailments or contact with foul women, or an attack by a low-born person, who die of water or serpent bite, who are struck by lightning, killed by fanged beasts, who die of falling from trees, who are defiled by women in menses and impurities, who are sudras, washermen and others, who are likely to fall into hell by committing sin or escaping it become ghosts - for such persons there is no rite of cremation, no water libation, no rite of obsequy and no observance of impurity. For these people, o Garuda, the rite of Narayana bali should be performed. Now, for the benefit of the entire world, I shall narrate the procedure of this rite that dispels the fear of sins.

2.40.40 "O lord of birds, the following articles should be gifted to a pious brahmana - seat, sandals, umbrella, coins, water pot, vessel, foodstuffs and grains, thus constituting the eight padas as well as a copper vessel with gingelly seeds along with gold and compatible daksinas.

2.40.61 "Gingelly seeds, iron, gold, cotton, salt, cow - each of them is considered to be pious.

2.42.1 "As a calf can trace its mother cow among a thousand cows, so also the actions done in previous births can follow the doer.

2.42.4 "Gold is the first offspring of fire, land of Visnu and cow of the sun. He who gifts gold, cow and land actually makes a gift of three worlds.

2.42.5 "He who gifts knowledge, land and cow is blessed. Reciting epics and the Puranas, cultivating seeds in the fertile land and milking the cow save people from the hell.

2.42.22 "A person who performs japas and homas and abstains from accepting cooked food from others is not tarnished by any sin even if he accepts the gift of the whole earth, full of precious jewels."

2.43.2 "Either the mother or a kinsman can perform the expiatory rite of behalf of a boy less than twelve but above four.

2.43.5 "Boys less than four years [Mbh - 14 ys] in age can never be guilty or sinful. Even the king cannot punish them. There is no expiatory rite prescribed for such boys in the sastras."

2.44.1-3 "O bird, now listen. Those who die of their will, or through horned animals, toothed animals, reptiles, low caste people (candalas), suicide, poison, beating, water, fire, air, hunger are counted among great sinners. So also the women of bad character."

2.45.22 "If a donor or a receiver [of a gift] does not know of impurity due to birth or death of a relative then no fault accrues.

2.45.27 "[In the daily sraddha] he [the performer] should worship the Visvedevas, offer the cooked to the brahmanas along with the fee. He should pay homage to them as they take leave of him.

2.45.28 "With the Visvedevas in view, the brahmanas are fed sumptuously. This rite of feeding the brahmanas is called Nitya sraddha or Deva sraddha.

2.46.3 "Virtue triumphs, not evil. Truth triumphs, not falsehood. forgiveness wins, not anger. Visnu conquers, not the asuras. (=2.47.46)

2.46.4 "I have understood this truth that everything auspicious results from merit. When our merit is at peak we are devoted to Lord Krsna.

2.46.9-10 "When the expiatory and deterrent tortures in hell cease, the living beings are born again in human (or animal - 28) form with the characteristic traits of their sins. O foremost among birds, I shall tell you what these signs are.

2.46.15 "(...) He who scolds others without a cause becomes a cat. (...)

2.46.16 "He who imparts knowledge to the undeserving becomes a bull. (...) He who is malicious to others, is born blind. He who steals a book is born similarly.

2.46.18-19 "(...) He who is averse to thinking on self is born a stupid trader. (...)

2.46.20-21 "(...) He who rapes an immature girl becomes a serpent. (...)

2.46.22 "(...) He who censures others is born of defiled womb. (...)

2.46.23-24 "(...) He who kills a serpent becomes a born (?) He who slanders brahmanas becomes a tortoise. He who subsists on the worship of murtis becomes a Candala.

2.46.26 "He who indulges in sex at the prohibited time becomes an eunuch.

2.46.31-32 "The receptivity, the inducement, misery, desire, effort, feature, complexion, love, hatred, birth, death - these are attributed to the beginningless soul.

2.46.35 "O bird, all these take place in all castes according to their previous actions. (...)

2.47.24 "Bodies are perishable, riches are transitory, death is ever present. Hence, virtue should be accumulated.

2.47.39-40 "The life of a person devoid of gifts and virtue is pitiable. Then why not achieve a permanent fruit with the help of perishable body? Vital airs are only guests and they go away for certain sooner or later.

2.47.52 "A person achieves purity externally as well as internally if he meditates on the lotus-eyed Visnu, no matter in whatever state, pure or impure, he may be passing through. [om apavitrah pavitro va sarvavastham gato 'pi va, yah smaret pundarikaksam sa bahyabhyantarah sucih, sri visnu sri visnu sri visnu]

2.48.4-6 "For those walking on the path of Yama, the four vargas - dharma, artha, kama and moksa - are secondary. Having entered the body measuring a thumb of his own hand and being held by the noose, he weeps again and again (...)

2.49.11 "The departed souls enter into insentient objects, worms, birds, animals, men, deities, but after release do not enter into any object or any body at all.

2.49.27 "Time fleets while man is ignorant due to the pressure of work he is engrossed. People do not realize what is harmful or what is wholesome for them. They are deaf to their own interest.

2.49.28 "Even after seeing the distressed, the dead, the fallen and the aggrieved, people do not even fear having drunk the wine of infatuation.

2.49.33 "He who does not know reality calls as useful what is useless, as permanent what is impermanent and meaningful what is meaningless.

2.49.41 "One shall do today what is to be done tomorrow, before noon what is to be done afternoon - but whether done or not done, death does not wait whether a person has completed the task or left in incomplete.

2.49.43 "Split with the needle of greed, soaked in the oil of passions, cooked in the fire of anger and envy, man is eaten up by death.

2.49.46 "This world has sorrow as the root. Whosoever possesses the same is sorrowful. Whosoever leaves it is happy.

2.49.48 "Man can get rid of fetters of iron and wood but not the fetters in the form of his son and wife.

2.49.49 "So far as a being makes relations dear to heart, the cones of sorrow are being pegged in his heart.

2.49.53 "Sleep, fear, sex and food are equal for all creatures. He who possesses knowledge is a man and he who is without knowledge is an animal. [eating, sleeping, mating, defending]

2.49.57 "Association with the good and discrimination are two clear eyes. Whosoever lacks them is a blind man who can go astray from the right path.

2.49.58 "Men are busy with their own affairs devolved on them by their ancestral profession [varna] or by their particular stage in life [asrama]. They do not know about true religion. Being deceitful they perish.

2.49.62 "Can the ignorant fools get release by torturing their body? Can a serpent die simply by beating the hole wherein he dwells?

2.49.70 "People are content with their routine work. But that does not help them to reach the goal. It is the knowledge of truth or reality that effects release.

2.49.78 "They study the Vedas and discuss. But they do not realize the Ultimate Reality just as a spoon does not know the taste of food.

2.49.89 "The word of Guru alone can grant release. All knowledge is in vain. Among thousands of scriptures the word of Guru alone is vivifying.

2.49.94 "That is the right action which does not put one into bondage. That is the knowledge which brings him release. All other action is but a labor and all other knowledge is but an artisanship. [akarma vs. karma]

2.49.111 "He obtains release who bathes in the holy tirtha of mind whose pond is knowledge, water is truth and which is devoid of filth of attachment and envy.

2.49.114 "Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya [Mayapura], Kasi, Kanci, Avantika Puri and Dvaravati [Dvaraka] - these seven places of pilgrimage can grant release.

3.1.43 "In the Kali age, only three principal Puranas are devoted to Visnu. Among these the Bhagavata Purana renders more good to the people.

3.1.44 "The Bhagavata Purana opens with the description of the origin of the universe, Visnu, Brahma, Rudra and others.

3.1.45 "The wise declare knowledge to be manifold, consisting of various grades - high, low and middling. All that knowledge is found in the Bhagavata Purana. Hence, Bhagavata is the highest of all Puranas.

3.1.46 "The Visnu Purana comes next, then comes Garuda. The three are principal Puranas in the Kali age. Garuda contains some additional matter.

3.1.64 "...Bhagavata is the best of all Puranas."

3.1.74-77 order of worship before the recitation of the Puranas: Visnu (74), Laksmi, Vayu, Bharati (Sarasvati) (75-76) [also mentioned in 88], Vyasa (77).

3.2.18 "The knowledge of the root [Visnu, 13] is essential. Those who are not aware of the root are asuras. They think that by illusion, the non-dual entity shows many forms as reflections in the mirror.

3.2.35 "The term [Brahman] is applicable primarily to Visnu. It is secondarily applicable to Brahma, Rudra and others. Being the store-house of endless merits Visnu is called Brahma.

3.2.57 "The Vedas declare Hari as the Lord of all. He who learns the Vedas with this knowledge is the best of the twiceborn.

3.2.61 "The Supreme Lord [Paramatma, conscience], when He observes that a guiltless person, with an honorable place in society, has committed a sinful deed, is extremely irritated and howls at him.

3.2.64 "Rise up, o Hari, that are ever watchful. Deprived of true knowledge and engrossed in worldly affairs from kalpa to kalpa, I undergo tortuous pains of unbearable suffering, o Lord.

3.2.65 "O Hari, you are of the nature of consciousness (cit sakti). You throw sinful daityas and evil-minded persons in the dungeon full of intense darkness. They say you are of the nature of suffering, o Hari, since you are distressed [as parent] by that act of yours.

3.3.3 "The incarnations of Lord Visnu are perfect. Perfect is that supreme form. Perfection begets perfection.

3.3.5 "The Supreme Lord is full. The Super-imposed universe is full. When the Super-imposed full is taken off that which remains is also full. [om purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate]

3.3.28 "She [Prakrti] is beginningless, eternal and truthful. How can she be a fake, o Lord of birds? Prakrti is eternal truth though not manifest in distinct form.

3.3.36 "The devotees of Visnu and their followers are exempt from censure and reproach. He who bears malice to them cannot receive the pleasure of Visnu. Even in the state of release he cannot enjoy perfect bliss.

3.3.39-40 "The seekers of eternal wisdom should know that the material objects consist of infinitesimal particles. You should know, o bird, that in the categories of the material objects there is a category called visesa of which the final visesa is the paramanu. ["the smallest", atomos]

3.3.43 "There are experts who can perceive the divisible particles of a substance but not the ultimate particle.

3.4.1 "When the Lord created the three gunas, their composite form being prakrti, there sprang up Laksmi in her threefold form - Sri, Bhu and Durga.

3.4.2 "Sri was characterized by sattva, Bhu by rajas and Durga by tamas. Thus say the wise.

3.4.8 "Brahma and Rudra are pervaded by Visnu. This very knowledge leads one to release. It is never otherwise.

3.4.22 "Of the three gunas, the sattva alone is pure. O Garuda, it is not mixed with rajas guna or tamas guna.

3.4.23 "It is called kevala sattva, not that it is superior to other gunas but because it was the only existing guna at the beginning of creation which got mixed with the rest at the time of dissolution.

3.4.63 "Thus, the three parts of rajas and one part of tamas [57, 64 - of four parts of mahat] constitute the body of Brahma due to the imbalance of gunas.

3.4.66 "There is a doubt, o Lord, on this point. The body of Brahma is constituted of pure sattva, they say. How could it be formed of rajas?

3.4.73 "Parts of rajas [in mahat of 12 parts]: one part of tamas, ten parts of rajas, one part of sattva - twelve parts in all.

3.4.74 "Parts of tamas: one part of rajas, eleven parts of tamas.

3.4.75 "Parts of sattva: ten parts of sattva. Such is the position of sattva in the mahat principle.

3.4.76 "Since Brahma is constituted of more sattva parts then any other deity he is called suddha sattva, i.e. consisting of pure sattvika quality.

3.6.23 "[Vayu prayed:] I crave for eternal pleasure accruing from the company of the person who sings praises of Hari. Those who initiate others to the same are Vaisnavas attached to Visnu.

3.6.39 "[Bharati prayed:] As in the original form, so in the assumed form at the stage of incarnation, Vayu feels no suffering. Visnu, Vayu and other incarnations do not suffer even when they take human shape.

3.6.58 "[Parvati prayed:] Your appellation 'Narayana' alone has the power to confer detachment from worldly affairs and devotion to the Lord. It can wipe off the sin of slaying a brahmana and of having illicit connection with the wife of a preceptor."

3.7.15 "[Daksa said:] The dust from the Lord's feet [in the form of Ganga] on the matted locks of hair made Siva auspicious. (...)

3.7.21 "[Aniruddha said:] O Lord, a man of poor intellect is averse to hearing the sweet narrative of Your Lordship. Such a person indulges in sensuous pleasures, the kissing of a woman's lovely cheek or a pressing his penis into her vagina filled with feces and intestines, like a pig fond of excrement.

3.7.33 "[Narada said:] O Lord, there is nothing more pleasing than hearing or uttering the praise of the Lord. O Lord, You purify those who utter Your name, together with their ancestors and successors.

3.7.63 "[Kratu said:] Your names, at the time of death, o Lord, destroy all suffering accruing from birth. Your names, when recited remove, all of a sudden, the pains of birth and confer release. Of such Yourself, o Lord, I place myself at disposal.

3.7.64 "O Lord Visnu, not to speak of those who meditate on You, even those who utter Your name for devotion attain release."

3.10.50 "From the unmanifest Prakrti to the gross elements the evolutes of Prakrti are primary. The knowledge of the same leads one to liberation.

3.10.51 "O Lord of the birds, the universe evolved out of the Cosmic Egg is secondary creation.

3.10.52-53 "Creation, dissolution, recreation and release, deities, major sages and regions Bhu, Bhuvar, Svar are eternal and unchangeable. The existence of the universe is actual and not a fiction.

3.10.54 "Those who speak otherwise are slayers of truth. The course of the universe is true, o Lord, the service of the Lord is also true."

3.12.74-75 "Neglecting the holy fig-tree, devoid of boughs, those who pay respects to the holy basil plant less than two months old or a young cow that has not delivered - should be declared asuras.

3.12.76 "...Full one hundred years of my [Brahma's] life constitute the age of Kali [a person].

3.12.79 "After the lapse of one hundred years the [sinful] living beings together with Kali will have their subtle bodies smashed with the thrust of a club by Vayu.

3.12.82-83 "In this world of mortals or in the world of extreme darkness, there is none equal to Kali who slanders the Lord, among the devotees of Siva who find pleasure in ignorance and aversion in knowledge. "Kali is known as Duryodhana, the endless pain incarnate.

3.12.84 "The wife of Kali hundred percent less in qualities is known as Alaksmi, popularly known as Manthara." [in Ramayana a hump-backed slave/servant of Kaikeyi]

3.14.30 "On Ekadasi, the day sacred to Visnu, the cooked food loses essence.

3.14.33 "O Lord of birds, on Ekadasi, sacred to Visnu, milk, ghee, honey and water are full of essence, while other stuffs are without essence. The best of sages have declared thus.

3.14.34 "In the month of Asadha, o Garuda, the vegetable loses all essences.

3.14.35 "In the month of Asadha, o lord of birds, the curd loses all essences. In the month of Asvina, the milk loses all essences.

3.14.36 "If a woman does not put the traditional mark Urdhvapundra on her forehead, she becomes devoid of essence. Those who are averse to devotion of Hari are called asuras."

3.15.26 "Then in Kali age, the Lord was born in the Kikata [modern Bihar] as Buddha. He deluded the asuras and flouted the Vedas.

3.15.27 "Then, at the interval between Kali and Satya age, the Lord will be born in the house of Visnugupta and slay the rulers who have turned thieves."

3.16.2 "O lord of birds, the universe is distinct from the Lord. The personal soul is the eye that perceives the universe. The knowledge of the universe is the knowledge belonging to Laksmi.

3.16.3 "The eternal Goddess Laksmi is inseparable from the Lord. The feet of the Lord are her only shelter. She is a released soul. [an opinion of Madhva] She is always awakened.

3.16.6-8 "As the consort of Vasudeva, she is called Maya; as the consort of Sankarsana, Jaya; as the consort of Aniruddha, Santa; as the consort of Pradyumna, Krti; as the consort of Visnu, Laksmi - the presiding deity of sattva guna. As the consort of Krsna, the son of Nanda, she is called Kanyaka.

3.16.9-10 "As the goddess of earth, the presiding deity of rajas, she is the consort of Boar. As the presiding deity of the Vedas, she is Annapurna. As the consort of Narayana, she is Laksmi, the unborn.

3.16.28 "Abiding in the hearts of his devotees, he multiplies their devotion to Visnu. Therefore he [Vayu] is called the devotee of Visnu.

3.16.58 "Vayu consumes all sorrows accruing both from virtue and vice in the Kali-age. Hence, Vayu is called Kali.

3.16.66-67 "O lord of birds, I shall explain to you the total incarnations of Vayu. Listen. Of the fourteen Indras, the second is called Virocana who is identical with Vayu. With his eyes expanded all around, he, the partial incarnation of Marut, is also called Rocana.

3.16.68 "When the Lord Rama incarnated on earth, Vayu was born as Hanuman for rendering assistance to Rama.

3.16.69 "When Lord Krsna descended on earth, he was born as Bhima, the offspring of Vayu.

3.16.70-71 "Vayu will be born as Maniman daitya, known as Sankara. He will be so called, for he will abolish caste and destroy dharma.

3.16.72 "Then he will be born as the son of Vasudeva. There will be none equal to him in the fourteen worlds. He will be fully equipped with wisdom.

3.16.78-80 "Of the 23 forms of the Supreme Lord Brahma, Vayu is one. In the enjoyment of eternal bliss, pleasure, etc., Vayu is at par with Brahma. This truth knows no variation; listening to this leads to release.

3.16.84 "Being the presiding deity of the Vedas, she [Bharati] is the Veda herself. She is the mistress of Vayu, the great meditator. [same as v. 89]

3.17.4-5 "O lord of birds, in the Krta age, formerly, Parvati, the mistress of Rudra, Saci, the mistress of Indra, Syamala, the mistress of Yama and Usa, the mistress of Asvins, went to the region of Brahma.

3.17.6 "In the presence of Brahma, they displayed their amorous feeling [to him]. O best of birds, on seeing that they were excited by love, Brahma cursed all the four [to take human births].

3.17.41-42 "In the form of Draupadi, Saci and the rest had their intercourse with Vayu in the body of Arjuna and other [Pandavas], hence, their union with Arjuna and others was not illegal.

3.17.44 "As they have realized Self, even if they transgress norms they cannot invite scandal."

3.18.21 "Suka, the son of Vyasa, who had been influenced by Vayu, was the incarnation of Rudra.

3.18.23 "Born of Drona, Asvatthama was Rudra himself. He was born to reap the fruits of the seeds of his actions sown in former births [22 - as Durvasa] and to illumine (by contrast) the virtues of his enemy.

3.19.20 "Except Lord Brahma even the gods, until and unless they are released, are ignorant. Brahma and Vayu know their self and the Supreme Self endowed with special traits.

[Nila to her father Agni:]

3.19.31 "In this world, there are several women who though married are always widows. Those who do not regard Hari as their husband - Hari who is beginningless, eternal, the quintessence of the universe, beautiful, bestower of liberation and accomplisher of desires - are always widows.

3.19.37 "The women should desert their husbands if they are averse to Visnu.

3.19.38 "If they have stored merit accruing from their pious acts performed in previous lives, their husbands can be devoted to Visnu.

3.19.39 "Rare are the devotees of Visnu in Kali age. Rare is a devotion for the Lord. Rare is the narrative of the Lord to be heard in the mortal world. Initiation in the cult of Visnu is rare, very rare. Rare is the company of the devotees of Hari.

3.19.40 "Rare is the chance for circumambulating the Lord or for homage to Hari. Rare is the means for maintaining His devotees. Rare is the gift of food to them.

3.19.41 "Rare is the tantric worship conducted for the Lord. Rare is the recitation of His name. Rare is the worship of His devotees. Rare is the dialogue with Him.

3.19.53-54 "You are my mother, father, husband, friend, son, preceptor, brother, sister and my darling. Throughout this vast universe, o Lord, I have been trying to know Reality but have not succeeded in my attempt. Father, mother, etc. are just artificial relations. You are the sole true relation, my Lord.

3.19.72-74 "In her second birth, Nila was born as the daughter of Nagnajit, Kavyavaha. In the svayamvara of Nila, I controlled seven bulls who by the favor of Lord Siva were uncontrollable by gods and mortals. I conquered kings who had assembled at the ceremony. I married her."

3.20.26 "The wise declare that the life of such people is rendered fruitless as have not heard the Bhagavata or the Brahma-kanda section of the present Purana, in the company of their preceptor or the followers of the Bhagavata sect. Such is the efficacy of the illustrious narrative of the glorious Lord. (32 - opposite case: those who hear or narrate Bh.P.)

3.20.28-29 "In the village, where there is no recital of the Bhagavata Purana, no follower of the Bhagavata cult who can taste the flavor of the Bhagavata verses, where there is no exegesis or commentary on the supreme songs of the Lord or His one thousand names, where there are no people who understand the substance thereof, one should not live even for a moment.

3.20.34 "Those who recite Bhagavata Purana out of greed for riches or those who know but do not reveal the secret of the Bhagavata go to Yama's abode.

3.20.35-37 "Those who create interest in Dharma and Karma Kandas but not in the Brahma Kanda and those who recite the Purana by accepting fee go to Yama's abode. Those alone are worthy of recital who remain satisfied with whatever money is offered willingly by devotees.

3.20.38 "Those who are extremely greedy of wealth have no right to recite this Purana.

3.20.43 "One should enjoy the essence of the Bhagavata Purana - a rare thing in this mortal world. One should enjoy the essence so that tears of joy may trickle down the eye - a phenomena very rare to occur."

3.21.1-2 "O lord of birds, now shall I tell you the birth of Kalindi, too. A daughter was born to Vivasvat of the solar race. O lord of birds, she was Kalindi, also known as Yamuna, the daughter of sun. She practiced penance with a desire to obtain Lord Krsna for her husband.

3.21.3 "Penance, they say, is a self-reflection, whereby reality is sought to be determined or it is a way of repentance for the sins of previous life.

3.21.4 "Praya is a penance wherein the mind is controlled. Hence, Prayascitta (expiation) is a way of self-control. It is not the tonsure of head which they do while entering penance.

3.21.5 "This penance has its root in remorse. (...)

3.21.13 "I have incurred sin by not offering perfumes, flowers, ornament or clothes. My body is polluted by anointing it with the perfumes prepared by nondevotees of Visnu. (...)

3.21.26 "But Brahma is not so complete in merits as Laksmi. Laksmi is not so complete in virtue as Visnu. Bharati is not so complete as Vayu. Varuni is not so complete as Sesa.

3.21.27 "Parvati is not so complete as Rudra. Others too are not so complete either. Brooding over the matter in her mind, she practiced penance on the bank of Yamuna river.

3.21.28 "At that time I had gone hunting on the bank of Yamuna. I saw her there practicing penance. I spoke to my friend Arjuna.

3.21.29 "O friend, approach the maiden immediately and ask her about the purpose of her penance.

3.21.32 "I married her just to favor her, but not for My pleasure. (...)

3.21.33 "Listen, I am going to tell a great secret. There is nothing that the preceptor will not disclose to his disciple."

3.23.23 "If one goes on pilgrimage on foot let him take the Salagrama stone with him. Such a person obtains full fruits of his pilgrimage. If he wears shoes or protects his feet, he derives the fruit of his pilgrimage less by one fourth.

3.23.24 "(...) If he subsists on the food provided by another, his pilgrimage is wasted. He derives no fruit of his pilgrimage.

3.23.25 "But there is no sin if he accepts food from an ascetic, Vedic scholar or a high-souled person. (...)

3.23.28 "The noble have declared that pilgrimage without compassion is barren. Similar fate awaits those who do not hear the divine story of Lord Hari on their way to a shrine.

3.23.31 "The sin accruing from the worship of Lord without devotion can be wiped off by the repeated uttering of the Vedic mantra for the purpose or by meditating upon Visnu. Whatever is performed by way of worship without devotion is a sheer waste. Thus say the learned devotees of Visnu.

3.23.47-48 "She [Jambavati] put salagrama in front and bowed to the Lord with devotion. She had traversed one hundred steps before she found herself in front of the Lord where sitting comfortably she heard the recital of the Bhagavata and the portion of the Purana which contains the praise of the mountain Venkata. [Garuda P.] With full devotion she heard the glory of Lord Venkatadri from the honorable preceptor Jaigisavya."

3.24.8-11 "Brahma and others can see Srinivasa as of eternal form of lustrous body. This is how Venkatesa is seen by Rudra and his associates. He appears to them as lustrous as one hundred thousand suns, which to the mortals is as lustrous as one thousand suns, as also possessed of the lustre of lightning. To the sages he appears like the sun and the moon, to holy men like constellations, to the worldly people like the mass of milk, to the liars as a blue stone, to the lay people as an ordinary stone only.

3.24.12 "People do not realize the true form of Lord Hari. They are swayed by tamas and rajas.

3.24.13 "Those characterized by sattva are seldom found in Kali age. Those who appear to be devotees of Visnu are in fact not devotees at all. Rather, they are busy in filling up their belly and meeting their sexual desire; for they undertake journey with that end in view.

3.24.14 "Rare is the diffusion of devotion in the iron age. Those who are devotees of the Lord but still not detached from worldly pleasures cannot easily get the sight of Lord Visnu.

3.24.34-35 "O maid, hear, I shall tell you a significant fact. At a congregation where lay narrate the tale of Visnu, where the devotees who understand the essence flock together - all those who are present are the devotees of the Lord.

3.24.40 "(...) He should worship Lord Visnu with eight organs of the body [astanga-pranama]. He should worship his preceptor in the same way taking him for Visnu.

3.24.45 "Brahma, etc. are the names of Visnu which He Himself had given to the gods. The wise Lord did not transfer some of His names such as Kesava, just as a king, when leaves the capital, does not relinquish his title or pass it onto another. [-> Vs 1.4.28]

3.24.51 "In the epithet Kesava, the letter 'K' denotes the primeval being Brahma which again signifies the lord of all beings. The word Isa denotes the worthy Lord Rudra who instigates dissolution of the universe.

3.24.57 "In the word Govinda 'go' means the universal speech. As You are expressed by the medium of universal speech you are called Govinda. O Lord, You are known to or by the Vedas.

3.24.73 "The maid sat in front of the principal deity and said: 'O noble Jaigisavya, please tell me how shall I have the audience of the Lord.'

3.24.74 "'O maid, I tell you how you shall proceed. At the main gate of Srinivasa you should recite the following:

3.24.75 "I commit thousands of faults day and night. O Lord, pardon all these faults of mine, o best of primeval beings.

3.24.76 "'O Lord, efface those causes of mine which create hatred for the devotees of Visnu, whether they are mental, oral or physical.

3.24.125 "O lord of birds, it is very rare to keep company with the good and noble people who can throw light on the nature of tattvas. It is possible to have a preceptor only if one has in store the aggregate of merits accumulated in previous existences.

3.24.126 "In the company of holy pious people even inauspicious things turn into auspicious ones. In the company of Lord Visnu the unsteady mind leaves its unsteadiness, as water changes its nature in association with the sea-shell or in contact with lotus leaf.

[8-year old Hiranyaksa:]

3.26.16 "The primeval Lord Visnu alone is the son because He protects against the hell Pum which is none other than this body itself. O mother, neither I, your son, nor your husband nor your parents nor brothers can ever be called your protectors. None other than Visnu is the protector.

3.26.17 "O mother, cut off your illusion with the weapon of knowledge and fix up your mind on Hari. O mother, the devotional remembrance of the name of Hari alone can destroy the sins for ever.

3.26.92 "One should donate the holy stone of salagrama to a brahmana well versed in the Vedas. The gift of salagrama destroys all sins, even those accruing from the slaughter of a brahmana.

3.26.100 "If a devotee is unable to donate anything in charity, he should at least hear the glorious narrative of the Lord. Thereby, he can derive as much fruit as is available by the gift of salagrama.

3.26.119 "The murti of Sesa [salagrama?] is twofold: awakened and asleep.

3.26.120 "The awakened form is the one with rising hoods which number seven lakhs. The sleeping form is rare to behold. It is one that bestows fortune in this world and liberation hereafter.

3.26.121-122 "If the murti carries nine to twenty wheels [cakras] it is called Ananta. It confers endless fruits to the worshiper. If it carries more than twenty wheels it is called Visvambhara.

3.27.34-36 "The maid practiced penances at these holy places. She continued the practice till I descended on earth. She gave up her body by way of yoga and was born in the house of Jambavat. She was called Jambavati. Her father Jambavat gave her in marriage to Me. I married her and gave her a rank next to Rukmini. Who else than Myself can describe the glory of Mount Venkata?

3.28.8 "Revati, the daughter of Raivata, became the wife of Balabhadra along with Varuni and Sauparna. (...)

3.28.20-21 "Arjuna, the son of Kunti, was the incarnation of Mantradyumna [Mantradruma, 6th of 14 Indras], Visnu and Ananta. Among the four, Vayu was prominent in Arjuna.

3.28.26-27 "Kusa, the son of Rama Dasarathi, was also Indra. Since he was created by sage Valmiki by means of Kusa grass, he was named Kusa, the son of Sita.

3.28.28 "Mantradyumna [-> 3.28.20-21], Purandara [present Indra], Gadhi [father of Visvamitra], Bali [the monkey king], Arjuna, Vikuksi [son of Iksvaku] and Kusa - these seven are Indras.

3.28.34 "Sudarsana [presiding deity of disc], Pradyumna [son of Krsna], Bharata [brother of Rama], Samba [son of Krsna], Sanat-kumara [son of Brahma] and Skanda [son of Rudra] - these six are the incarnations of Kama [Cupid].

3.28.36 "Prana (vital airs) is called ahamkara; it is a part of Garutmat [Garuda]. It is inferior to Kama and Indra by ten percent.

3.28.44 "Svayambhuva Manu, at par with Brhaspati, the preceptor of Devas, was the first son of the creator. He was born to propitiate Lord Visnu. He formulated laws of the state [Manu-samhita].

3.28.45 "Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods, had three forms, o lord of birds. When Rama incarnated on earth, he was born as Bharata. As such he was pervaded by Brahma.

3.28.46 "He took monkeys, the incarnations of Devas, across the ocean of life and death. He narrated the mighty exploits of Lord Rama. He was known as Nara who incarnated to be absorbed in Rama.

3.28.47 "When Lord Krsna incarnated on earth, Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods, incarnated as Drona [son of Bharadvaja and apsara Ghrtaci]. He was pervaded by the creator. As Brhaspati was born of drona [jug], he was called Drona.

3.28.48 "Brhaspati incarnated as Uddhava. He was pervaded by wind god in order to help the Lord to relieve the earth of its burden and mankind of their suffering.

3.28.62-63 "Visnu is the best of all gods. Brahma and the rest are dependent on Him. Whatever I [Lord Krsna] state is the truth.

3.28.68 "The primeval being, Visnu, alone is real. (...)

3.28.69-70 "The supreme soul is real, so is the personal soul. The difference between the two is real, so also between the animate and the inanimate, similarly between the inanimate and the Lord. The difference between one soul and the other is also real. If all this is proved to be false then let the lord of snakes sting Me mortally. [basis of Madhva's dvaita]

3.28.71 "So saying, He [Krsna] caught hold of the infuriated snake but the snake did not sting Him at all. (...)

3.28.73 "By accepting duality as a matter of fact, one feels quite happy. If all this is proved to be false then let the lord of serpents sting Me mortally.

3.28.75 "[Lord Krsna said:] In this body two organs are the strongest of all. They are two ears and two eyes. The two are interrelated. O lord of birds, I shall tell you the real nature of the two.

3.28.76 "Ears are prone to hearing gossips and enjoying them with pleasure. They are naturally averse to hearing the ambrosial tale of Lord Visnu. They have twofold nature: dullness and control.

3.28.77 "Eyes are prone to gaze at men and women. Excessive doting takes away sleep. They are averse to seeing the devotees and their worship of the Lord.

3.28.78 "Even the stupid person is aware of their dual nature. He rather accepts indulgence as a matter of course. In his stupidity he takes delight in entering his penis in the vagina of any female.

3.28.79 "Neither men nor women nor ascetics have any dread or shame in this respect. Men can copulate even with their sisters, that too at the day time, just as the priests do with the women at the Soma sacrifice.

3.28.85 "Intellect is the wife of Purusa. She has twofold nature, o lord of birds. One is wicked; the other is pious. Of the two the younger one is wicked, the elder one is pious.

3.28.109 "O lord, propitiate the brahmanas, the devotees of Visnu, who alone can help you to cross the ocean of suffering in this world. Therefore give up the worship of gods or goddesses (other than Visnu). Is there any gain in propitiating illusion?

3.29.5 "Ganga is so called because she purifies the world by her waters. The devotees call her Visnupadi out of devotion for her.

3.29.6 "Formerly, she forced her way out of the nails of the left foot of Visnu whose symbol is sacrifice. In the beginning she broke through the upper part of the cosmic egg.

3.29.16 "(...) The wife of Yama is Syamala. She is also the wife of Kali.

3.29.24-25 "Since she avoided all these, she was called Syamala. She became the consort of Vasudeva known as Devaki. (...)

3.29.31 "(...) The noble Abhimanyu was born of Arjuna and Subhadra. He contains the amsas of Krsna, moon, Yama, Asvins and Hara.

3.29.38 "O lord of birds, now I shall tell you about those activities which are delightful to the Lord. A person should rise early in the morning and remember Lord Hari Narayana.

3.29.39 "He should bow to Tulasi and remember Visnu and His consort Laksmi. At the call of nature, while evacuating bowels he should remember Kesava of the form of apana [vital air].

3.29.43-44 "In the house where there is no cow or the holy basil plant in the courtyard, where the inmates do not celebrate any festival for the gods, where there is no recitation of the narrative of Visnu, one should never stay even for a moment, for association with the inmates of that house will lead to misery.

3.29.45 "He who does not keep a cow at home, is unaware of the art of milking it or is averse to nourishing it, passes his life in vain.

3.29.62 "When he is on the verge of death he should remember the attributeless and omnipresent Narayana and His vehicle Garuda. (...)

3.29.64 "When he is going to sleep he should remember Hari as the incarnation of Vyasa."

reposted at:

Acara kanda, translation M.N. Dutt
Garuda Purana, sanskrit (GRETIL)
Vedic Books Online

page url:
Please support us:  
© 2001 - 2024 VEDA - Bhaktivedanta Book Trust -, authors. CC-BY-SA J. Mares (contact)